Sun, Earth, and the Moon

Astronomy Review

Sun, Earth, and Moon

Amber Suber 

The sun is made of plasma. It has three layers of interior which are the core, radiation zone, and the convection zone.

The core-produces the a huge amout of the Sun's energy, which comes from nuclear fusion. In the process of nuclear fusion, hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium. 

There are three layers of the Sun's atmosphere which are the photosphere, chromosphere, and the corona.

The photospheregives off visible light.

The chromosphere-gives the color of the sun. It causes the redish glow at the beginning of a solar eclipse.

The corona-sends out a stream of electrically charged particles called solar winds. Outer most layer

The sun also has features such as sunspots, prominences, and solar flares.

Sunspots- are darkers, cooler regions on the sun.

Prominences- Particles from the sun which explode and connect at sunspots forming a loop

Solar flares- are bigger explosions of energy from prominences.

 this is the Sun

The Features of the Sun 

Moon phases are caused by revolution of Earth and the moon and the Sun.

The moon phases are as follows: 

1. New moon- no light is visible

2. Waxing cresent- less than half the light is show 

3. 1st quarter- half the light is visible

4. Waxing gibbous- more than half the light is visible

5. Full moon- all light is visible

6. Waning gibbous- more than half the light is visible 

7. 3rd quarter- half the light is visible

8. Waning cresent- less than half the light is visible


Waxing means gaining light and waning means losing light.

Cresent means less than half of the light is shown and gibbous means more than half of the light is  shown. It takes about 29 1/2 days to complete the moon phases. Half the moon is always lit but the part of that kight that u can see varies depending on where you are.

The moon phases


Moon Phases

Tides are an effect of the moons gravitational pull on Earths water

The is high tide and low tide. They are about six hours apart everyday twice a day. 

The are spring tides and neap tides.

A spring tide has higher high tides and lower low tides. They happen when there is a new moon or a full moon.

A neap tide has lower high tides and higher low tides. They happen when there is a 1st quarter or a 3rd quarter moon.

 A spring and Neap tide


Rotation is when something turns but doesn't leave the place it's at. Revolution is when something circles another object. 

Earth Rotates on it's axis while it revoles around the Sun. All the planets revolve around the sun. The moon revolves around earth.

Earth's revolution around the sun takes about 365 1/4 days which makes a year. Earth's rotation on its axis takes about 24 hours which causes days. 

Earth's rotation and revolution

Rotation & Revolution

Earth has 4 seasons and they are all caused by the tilt of Earth's axis. Because Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees each himisphere is either tilted away or towards Earth which causes different seasons in each hemisphere depending on the heat. The other effect of the tilt is the amount of day light. Because it's tilted there are solstices and equinox's. The fall and spring have equinoxes because the sun is right above the equator so there is one day where the day light and night time are equal which is on March 21 and september 21. In the summer and winter the sun is not directly above the equator so the days are not even and in summer the days are longer and in winter the days are shorter. The summer solstice is June 21, the longest day of the year and the winter solstice is December 22, the shortest day of the year.

Equinoxes and solstices


Eclipses are very rare. There are two types of eclipses, one is a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse.

A solar eclipse is is when the moon is a new moon and the Sun, the Moon, and Earth are in a line in that order. The light from the Sun is blocked by the Moon in a small area on Earth.

Solar eclipes


In a lunar eclipse the Sun, the Earth and the Moon are in line in that order. The light from the Sun is blocked by the Earth so the moon is very dark for a little bit. 

These eclipses are rare because the Moons orbit/revolution is tilted 5 degrees so they are not in line every time the moon is at that phase.

A solar eclipse is more rare than a lunar eclipse because the sun is so masive and the moon is so small so it barley blocks any light so it is most often a partial eclipse.

Lunar eclipse