This book talks about the several wars and people who were involved.

The American Civil War

Confederacy

 

Civil War: a war between citizens of the same country.

 

vs

Union

By: Natalie Mejia

Strategies:

The North had both strengths and weaknesses. The advantages of the North was that they had a larger population, which led them to have a bigger industry and more abundant resources than the South. The North also contained a banking system which helped raise money for the war. In addition the North contained a greater possession of ships and had a larger and more efficient railway network.

Strengths: 

Leaders:

Union General George McClellan

1

3

2

North

The Union intended to gain control of the Mississippi River to cut southern supply lines and to divide the Confederacy.

 

The North planned to take control of Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital.

The North would blockade Southern ports to prevent the South from earning money.

Union General William Tecumseh Sherman

President Abraham Lincoln

The main goal of the North was to bring the Southern states back to the Union. As the war continued the abolishing of slavery also became another Northern goal. 

 

There were about 187,000 Union soilders, also known as Yankees. At the end of the war a total of about 2.1 million men fought for the Union.

Nickname:

War Aims:

The Union

Weaknesses:

Even with the many advantages that the North had, they also faced many disadvantages. Bringing the Southern states back into the Union would be difficult, so the North would have to invade the South, a large area filled with a hostile population. To win the war, the North has to occupy the Confederacy territory and subdue the population of millions. The South also had people who gave strong support for the war.

California, Oregon, Kansas, Iowa, Illinois, Minnesots, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsilvana, New York, Delware, New Jersey, Conneticuit, Rhode Island, Massachusettes,  Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine

States 

- Defensive Strategy

Strategies:

Strengths:

The South would also switch strategies by taking offense. They moved their armies northward to threaten Washington, D.C. and other Northern cities,hoping to pursuade the North that it could not win the war.

- Offensive Strategy

Like the North, the South also had advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage for the Southeners was that they were fighting in familiar territory, this was a huge diadvantage for the North because the North was not familiar with the South's land areas. Another advantage that the South had was they had a strong tradition of military training and service, this result provided the South with large pools of officers.

They planned to defend their homeland, holding onto as much territory as possible until the North was tired of fighting.

Leaders:

South

General Robert E. Lee

Thomas Jackson

President Jefferson Davis

There was about 112,000 confederate soilders, also known as Rebels. At the end of the war there approximatley 850,00 milllion men who fought for the Confederacy.

Nickname:

The main goal of the South was to win reconition as an independent nation. If the Southeners were to gain independence, this would allow them to preserve their traditional ways of life, which included slavery.

War Aims:

The Confederacy

Weaknesses:

When comparing the North to the South,  the population is the major difference between the two. The South smaller population was their main weakness. It was much harder to build armies, their possession of factories was smaller, and the confederate government had a hard time in delivering food, weapons and other supplies to its troops, because of the fewer trains and railroads that they had in their territory...

Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Misssissippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia.

States

Seccession Event And Causes to the Civil War

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General Major Robert Anderson

North

Union Casualties:

Union Soldiers:

80

0

After the sessession crisis that followed Lincolns election in November 1860, many threats were made to the forts thatwere occupied in the south. Major Robert Anderson leader of the Union forces moved his men from Fort Moultrie to a more secured island, Fort Sumter. The Confederate soon surrounded Fort Sumter, wanting the Union troops out. Considering the fact that Major Robert Anderson and his soldiers were running out of food, fuel, and needed supplies, the Confederacy was hoping that they would leave without a fight. However, Anderson refused to leave, hoping that the supply ship that Lincoln sent would get to the fort. Losing patience Confederate General Beauregard sent a message to Mjor Anderson saying that he would fire in one hour if he did not surrender. Anderson didnt' surrender, and the firing began. Fort Sumter was soon surrounded by all sides, firing left and right, eventually causing the union troops to surrender

Battle of Fort Sumter

The South's secedment from the Union is what caused the first battle of the American Civil War.

Confederate Victory

Charleston, South Carolina

April 12, 1861

Confederate Casualties:

Confederate Soldiers:

General  P.G.T Beauregard

 

500

South

0

General Irvin McDowell

Union Casualties:

North

Union Soldiers:

35,000

2,700  

General Robert Patterson.  

First Battle of Bull Run

The battle came about as a result of a Union drive to try and take Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate states, as it was felt that taking the city would mean an early end to the uprising.

The battle of Bull Run was the first major battle of the civil war. Going into the battle neither side was prepared, the Confederate was having trouble with communication between its soldiers, and the Union had many new recruits who were not entirely sure with battle plans. In July of 1861, Mcdowell enters Virginia, with the aim of taking over the confederate capital of Richmond. His plans were soon  interrupted  as he arrives at a creek called Bull Run, where he was met with over 30,000 confederate soldiers. The battle field was soon chaotic, and many soldiers were either injured, killed or captured by the opposing side.  This battle turned out to be a humiliating Union defeat, indicating that the civil war was going to be a long brutal affair.

Confederate  Victory

Centreville, Virginia

July 16, 1861

General P.G.T. Beauregard

Confederate Casualities: 

Confederate Soldiers:

South

20,000

2,000

General Joseph E. Johnston

 

General Ulysses S. Grant

North

Union Casualties:

Union Soldiers:

24,000

2,600

 

General Ulysses S. Grant

Flag Officer Andrew H. Foote

Battle of Fort Donelson

After the capture of Fort Henry, under the command of Union general  Ulysses S. Grant, on February 6, 1862. Thousands of Confederate soldiers were sent to reinforce Fort Donelson. If the Union was able to take over Fort Donelson, this would open up important transportation routes into the South. Determined to achieve this goal Grant marched his way to Donelson and started launching small attacks to find the Forts weakness and strengths. During the small attacks, ironclad gunboats bombarded the fort from the river with bombs and explosives. While that was happening Grant sent message for reinforcements, which luckily he was able to attain for his sake, just as the ships were retreating, due to damage. On February 15, the Confederate commander John B. Floyd launched a surprise attack, leading his men out of the fort to attack Grant's troops. Surprised, Grant's troops were caught off guard, but soon the real battle began. With a chance of an escape route to Nashville, Floyd decided to retreat and order his men back into the fort. Grant’s troops then surrounded the fort saying that there was “no terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted'. On February 16, 1862 Fort Donelson was surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant. The North had then won its first substantial victory.

Control of the rivers was important to both armies during the Civil War. If the Union was able to take over Fort Donelson, this would open up important transportation routes into the South. The defeat was devastating to the Confederates, which allowed the Union to enter Kentucky and occupy central Tennessee.

Fort Donelson, Tennessee

Union Victory

February 11-16, 1862

Confederate Casualties:

General Simon B. Buckner

Confederate Soldiers:

South

16,000

General John B. Floyd

2,600

Louis M. Goldsborough

Union Soldiers:

Union Casualties:

North

2,200

500

Battle of Hampton Roads

The battle of Hampton Roads also known as Battle of the Ironclads or Monitor and Merrimack, was the  nation’s first battle with ironclad ships against one another. This battle started when the Confederate forces salvaged the Union warship named Merrimack in Norfolk, Virginia. The Confederates rebuilt the ship naming it Virginia and covered it in heavy armor plating above the waterline and outfitted it with powerful guns. On March 8,1862, the Virginia sunk two Union ships and ran one aground off Hampton Roads in southeastern Virginia. Not wanting anymore loses the North soon got to work creating their own ironclad ship called the Monitor. On March 9, 1862, the battle between the Virginia and the Monitor began early morning and lasted for more than three hours. Both ships shot many shells at each other, but they had little effect. Finally, in the early afternoon, the Virginia pulled back to Norfolk, shortening the the terror that the Confederate ironclad had brought  to the Union navy. This battle marked the age of naval warfare, also allowing the North and South to use these ships as examples to build more.

The Confederates had hoped to disrupt the Union's blockade of the Confederate supply line. The battle between the two ironclads ushered in a new era in naval warfare.

Inconclusive

Sewell’s Point, Virginia

March 8 – 9, 1862

Confederate Soldiers:

Confederate Casualties:

South

Franklin Buchanan

1,900 

100

Union Casualties:

Union Soldiers:

North

13,000

66,000

General Don Carlos Buell

After general Grant took control of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson he decided to set up camp at Pittsburg Landing on the banks of the Tennessee River to wait for reinforcements from General Buell before heading down South to attack the Confederates. Unfortunately for the Union the Confederate general Ulysses S. Grant knew that Grant was waiting for reinforcements, and decided to surprise attack him before the two Union troops joined together. He was afraid that once the armies joined together, they would be too big and strong for his much smaller army. On the morning of April 6, 1862, the Confederate army attacked the Union army at Pittsburg Landing. Since both sides contained many new recruits Union lines and Confederate lines were easily broken. However some of the Union lines were able to hold, the most famous was held in a sunken road that became known as the Hornet's Nest. A few Union soldiers were able to hold back the Confederate forces long enough for the reinforcements from General Buell's army to arrive. It was a long and gruesome battle, full of bloodshed and violence, but with a turnout of the Confederacy winning the day. Even with the glorious win for the day, the Confederates had suffered a major loss. General Albert Johnston was killed on the battlefield due to a shot to his leg, he did not realize how bad his injury was till he lost too much blood and it was too late to recover.  General P.G.T. Beauregard took control, confident that they would win the next day.The second day of battle the Confederates continued to attack and fight until Beauregard realized that they were hopelessly outnumbered and ordered his soldiers to retreat.

General Grant’s next objective was to attain Corinth, a vital rail center that if captured would give the Union total control of the region.

Battle of Shiloh

Union Victory

Southwestern Tennessee

April 6-7, 1862

Confederate Casualties:

General Albert Sidney Johnston

Confederate Soldiers:

South

44,700

10,700

General P.G.T. Beauregard

Union Casualties:

North

Union Soldiers:

Major General John Pope

14,000

62,000

Battle of Second Bull Run

In August 1862, Union and Confederate soldiers once again met on the same battlefield. The second Battle of Bull run had the highest casualties than any battle fought throughout the Civil War, it was a gruesome battle that cost many lives. In early August, McClellan was ordered to send his troops to Northern Virginia, where they would unite with Pope’s army and create an overwhelming force that could crush Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Recognizing the danger Lee decided to attack before the two Union troops were able to combine against him. Lee split his forces and ordered General Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson to march around Pope’s right flank, and Gen. James Longstreet, would stay at Pope’s front. The battle occurred  when Jackson attacked a Union column marching along the Warrenton Pike near Gainesville, Virginia. Pope saw the outcome of the first day as a Union victory and believed Jackson was retreating. He then launched an assault on Jackson's troops for the 29th. By the end of the night, Pope still believed the Confederates were in a state of retreat and ordered a massive offensive for the 30th. The next day Pope launched his attack which was immediately defended, and sent the entire left flank of the Union forces back to Bull Run Creek. Because of exhaustion and darkness, the Confederates did not pursue, and although Pope had lost the battle, his army was not totally destroyed.  

The Second Battle of Bull Run gave the Confederate army a chance to march into the north for a battle in northern territory and Soldiers were more experienced than the first Bull Run.

Confederate Victory

August 28 – 30, 1862

Manassas, Virginia

Confederate Casualties:

Confederate Soldiers:

General Robert E. Lee

50,000

8,000

South

Union Casualties:

Union Soldiers:

Major General George B. McClellan

North

12,400

75,300

On September 17 both the Union and the Confederate soldiers clashed on the battlefield, marking the day as the single bloodiest battle of the entire war. Shortly after the victory at the second battle of Bull Run, on August, 1862, Lee led his own Army of Northern Virginia across the Potomac into Maryland. The battle began on the morning of September 17, 1862 when the Union army, under General Joseph Hooker, attacked the Confederate army on the left flank. Despite being heavily outnumbered, the Confederate army continued to hold their ground throughout the day. General McClellan was cautious and never committed his entire force, while Robert E. Lee had his entire army engaged in battle in order to hold off the Union soldiers. Still fighting Lee and his troops slowly retreated back to Maryland. Neither side was clearly a winner, but the North claimed the victory as Lee's army was forced to retreat from Maryland and Union soil. Also, Great Britain and France continued to not recognize the Confederacy as a legal nation, and President Lincoln used this battle to take action against slavery.

Both General Lee andConfederate President Jefferson Davis thought that a successful invasion would convince France and Great Britain to officially recognize the Confederacy as a nation.

Battle of Antietam

Union Victory

Sharpsburg, Maryland

September 17, 1862

Confederate Soldiers:

Confederate Casualties:

General Robert E. Lee

South

52,000

10,300

Union Casualties:

North

Union Soldiers:

General Ambrose E. Burnside

106,000

12,700

Battle of Fredericksburg

 

After the battle of Antietam, President Lincoln replaces general George McCLellan with General Ambrose E. Burnside. President Lincoln right away announces to Burnside that he needs to launch a major attack on the Confederate forces in Virginia. Going into the Battle the Confederate army was stationed on a hill giving them an advantage, while the Union soldiers were on level ground, giving them a higher number of casualties. Knowing this information General Ambrose E. Burnside still decides to attack. Union soldiers are then moved cross the Rappahannock river under punishing fire in an attempt to take Fredericksburg. Two days later the Union has finally reached the same grounds as the Confederacy. Once there Burnside sends wave after wave of Union soldiers, who were right away killed, resulting in 6,000 Union deaths in less than 2 hours. By the end of the day the Union had suffered so many losses, they were forced to retreat. This caused an outrage from president Lincoln, because once again the Union was defeated.

 

Burnside wanted to cross the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg and race the confederate capitol of richmond before lee's army could stop them. This war was a major setback for the Union troops, and gave new hope to Confederate States.

Confederate Victory

Fredericksburg, Virginia

December 11-15, 1862

Confederate Soldiers:

Confederate Casualties:

General Robert E. Lee

South

72,500

5,300

North

Union Casualties:

General Joseph Hooker

Union Soldiers:

97,000

14,000

Battle of Chancellorsville

The Battle of Chancellorsville show cases General Robert E. Lee battle skills at their most spectacular. Unhappy with the results from the war President Lincoln keeps changing the Generals, in hope that one will make a difference. Lincoln replaces General Ambrose E. Burnside with General Joseph Hooker. Hooker attacks Lee’s troops in an area called the wilderness, badly outnumbered General Robert E. Lee still advances through with the battle. He splits his army into many pieces and sends Stonewall Jackson and 14,000 men on a wide left hook. Once there Jackson attacks Hooker's army almost destroying it, until he accidentally got shot in the arm by some of his own troop members. This resulted in his arm to be amputated, and caused his death a week later. Fortunately for Hooker he manages to keep his army from destruction and leaves the area. Even though Confederate Army had won the battle, they were considerably weakened. They lost 13,000 of their 60,000 men, and they had also lost one of their best generals due to an accidental shot by his own men.

 

After the battle of Fredericksburg, Joseph hooker rebuilt his army early May 1863 and launched a campaign against lee. This battle was considered by many historians to be Lee’s greatest victory. At the same time, the South lost one of its greatest strategic minds with the death of Stonewall Jackson. 

Confederate Victory

Chancellorsville, Virginia

April 30 – May 6, 1863

Confederate Casualties:

Confederate Soldiers:

South

General Robert E. Lee

57,000

10,000

North

Union Casualties:

General Ulysses S. Grant

Union Soldiers:

4,800

75,000

On May 18, 1863, Grant's army approached Vicksburg.  The confederate army was stationed behind the defenses of the city, making it nearly impossible to defeat. Grants first idea was to just break through the city by overwhelming them with his superior numbers. Unfortunately for him his plan failed, many of his soldiers lost their lives, and the Confederates still had the advantage. Grants next plan was to just bomb the city over and over again until they ran out of food, which would  lead them to eventually surrender. The Confederate indeed run out of food. There conditions got worse and worse as time went on. The began to eat anything that was available including cats, dogs, and horses. Once those ran out they started eating rats and tree bark. Due to malnutrition, many of the soldiers became sick from diseases like scurvy, dysentery, and malaria. To make things worse for the people who were living in the city, they had to hide day and night in their basements or dug out caves in the hills. On July 4, 1863, the Confederates had had enough. General Pemberton surrendered to Grant.

The Siege of Vicksburg was a great victory for the Union. It gave control of the Mississippi River to the Union.

Assult on Vicksburg

Union Victory

Vicksburg, Mississippi

May 18-July 4, 1863

Confederate Casualties:

Confederate Soldiers:

South

3,300 deaths with nearly 30,000 captured

General  John C. Pemberton

34,000

General George G. Meade

Union Casualties:

Union Soldiers:

North

82,289

23,049

The Battle took place over three days.The Confederates outnumbered the Union the first day and caused them to retreat through the town of Gettysburg to the south side of town. General Lee wanted his men to continue the attack and finish off the Union troops. However, his men delayed and the Union had the opportunity to set up their defenses.

By the second day, the armies from both sides were now at full force.  Lee decided to finally attack,  there was fierce fighting throughout the day with both sides taking heavy losses. The third day, General Lee decided to make an all or nothing attack. He felt if he could win this battle, the South would win the war. He sent General Pickett, with 12,500 men, on a direct charge at the heart of the Union Army. This famous attack is called Pickett's Charge. Pickett's men were defeated with over half of them injured or killed. General Lee and the Confederate Army retreated.The Battle of Gettysburg was the deadliest battle of the Civil War.

Another victory might persuade Britain and France to  provide aid to the Confederacy. George meade's mission was to find and fight lee's, forces as well as protect Washington and baltimore from Confederate attacks.

Battle of Gettysburg

Union Victory

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

July 1-3, 1863

Confederate Casualties:

Confederate Soldiers:

General Robert E. Lee 

South

75,000

28,063

Surrender at Appomattox & Terms of Surrender

On April 9, 1865 General Robert E. Lee and his troops surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in a small Virginia Village called Appomattox Court House.

On August 20, 1866 President Andrew Johnson signed a document stating that the American Civil War was over and all of America was at peace.

Additional Terms:

In addition food was granted for the starving army and permission was granted allowing soldiers to keep their own horses and mules for use in the spring planting.

Terms of Surender ....

4

3

2

1

To abide by the laws of their individual states.

To observe the conditions of their parole, not to take up arms against the government.

To surrender their arms and artillery (not including the swords of officers)

To return to their respective homes.

 Born: January 19, 1807                Died: October 12, 1870         

 

 Spouse: Mary Anne Curtis Lee (m. 1831-1870)

 

General Robert E. Lee

Robert E. Lee grew up in Virginia, with a mother who came from a wealthy family and a father who earned the nickname ‘Light Horse Harry” in the American Revolutionary War. Even with his family’s ancestral descent, they were not the wealthiest family around. This was due to his father making some bad business deals and lost all of the families money. At two years old Robert’s dad was sent to a debtors prison, because he was unable to pay debt. Later on Robert lost his dad, because he traveled somewhere to the West Indies and never returned. The outcome of no money led to Robert taking an interest in joining the military. He thought that this would be a great way to get a free education and to someday pursue a career.He thought that this would be a great way to get a free education and to someday pursue a career. Joining the West Point Military Academy at the age of 18 he graduated in the year 1829 near the top of his class. After graduating, he joined the Army Corps of Engineers where he helped build forts and bridges for the army. A couple years later Lee got married in 1831 to Mary Curtis, he had a total of seven children (three boys and four girls). Lee’s First battle took place in the Mexican-American War. He was under the command of General Winfield Scott, who vocalized Lee as one of the best soldiers he’s ever seen in battle. Due to his actions in the war he was soon proceded up the ranks and was made a military leader. Lee has continued to win victorious in the many wars that he has took action in. One would include the raid on Harpers Ferry by John Brown. John was trying to start a revolt among the slaves. Lee who was in charge of a group of marines went to a put to John's actions, which he succeeded in, once again earning another title for himself. At the start of the Civil War in 1861, lee was offered the command of the Union army by President Lincoln. Deciding that he did not want to go against his home state Virginia, Lee left the United states army, and became general of the Confederate Army of Virginia. Throught the civil war Lee took most of the control, his army fought many important battles of the eastern front.  Even though the Confederate army was no match for the Union army in numbers, lee and his men managed to come on top as victories, for several of the battles that they fought. Many referred to Lee as the “grey fox” He was grey because of the confederate army uniform, and he was a fox because he was smart and cunning like one. Lee commanded during many Civil War battles including the Seven Days Battle, the Battle of Antietam, the Battle of Fredericksburg, the Battle of Gettysburg, the Battle of Cold Harbor, and the Battle of Appomattox. Even with the incredible battle skills that Lee possessed, the Union forces outnumbered him, resulting in him to surrender to at General Ulysses S. Grant  on April 9 1865 at the courthouse in Appomattox, Virginia. He received good terms for his soldiers, who were given food and allowed to return home.With the possibility with being hung as a traitor to the United states, he was forgiven by President lincoln. Lee became president of Washington College in Lexington, Virginia. He worked there until he died from a stroke in 1870. Lee only wanted peace and healing for the United States after the Civil War.

 Born: April 27, 1822                              Died: July 23, 1885                         

 

 

 

  Spouse: Julia Grant              (m. 1848–1885)

 

General Ulysses S. Grant 

Ulysses Grant was a Union general who  commanded the victorious Union army during the American Civil War (1861-1865) and served as the 18th U.S. president from 1869 to 1877. Ulysses S. Grant is most known for being the lead general of the Union troops during the American Civil War. His fame as a war hero propelled him into the White House where his presidency was full of scandals.

Growing up in Ohio he was the son of a tanner who did not want to follow the same footsteps as his father. Knowing this Grant's father suggested that he attend the U.S Military Academy at West Point. Not really liking the idea of becoming a soldier, he decided against it, until he realized that this was his chance at a college education, reconsidered his decision he decided to attend at West Point. After his graduation from West Point he became an officer in the army, which led him to the result in drinking because of the long periods of times he was away from his wife and family. Deciding to return home, he opens up a general store, to support his family.

Grant re-enters the military, due to the start of the Civil War. He started in the Illinois Militia, and soon proceeded up the ranks in the army to general. In 1862 Grant produced his first victorious battle at the capture of Fort Donelson in Tennessee. He became known as Unconditional Surrender(U.S) Grant when he told the Confederate commanders “No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender.”

Becoming a famous war hero in 1864 President Lincoln made him General -in-Chief of the entire Union army. Being the General of the entire Union Army, Grants first step was to lead his army up against Robert E. Lee in Virginia. Battling over a year, Grant eventually defeated both Lee and the Confederate Army. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House, in Virginia on April 9, 1865. Grant received word from Lincoln containing the terms of surrender, which were very generous, one included all the Confederate troops to return home after surrendering their weapons.  

After the Civil War Grant's popularity soared causing him to win the presidential election in 1868. Grant served two terms as president and even ran for third, which resulted in a loss. Unfortunately, his presidency was marked by a series of scandals. Many people in his administration stole from the government, and caused many problems.  Regardless of all the scandals, Grant was still able to produce several positive accomplishments. One included Grant fighting for civil rights for both Africans and Native Americans. He pushed for the passage of the 15th Amendment, giving the right of all men to vote regardless of race, color, or whether they were a former slave. He also signed a bill that allowed people of African Descent to become U.S. citizens.

The result of him not winning a third election brought him and his wife to tour the world for over two years. Once returning from his trip he once again decided to run for president  in 1880, which resulted in another loss.

Unfortunately for Grant he died of throat cancer in 1855, many say that this was probably due to the result of him smoking several cigars majority of his life.

In both the North and South, civilians and soldiers suffered terrible hardships and faced new challenges during the war. The Lives of Soldiers in the war were not glorious. As seen from the several letters that were wrote to each of the soldier's family. They described their boredom, discomfort, sickness, fear and horror. At first there were many enthusiastic civilians who volunteered for the armies, but as the war progressed many were soon forced to join, and the stories of a soldier, were not as joyful as everyone thought. Camps is where soldiers lived. Life there had its pleasant moments of baseball games, songs stories, and letters to their family. Camp life was also dull, it had a routine of drills, bad food, marches, and was full of rain. Both sides of the army were full of losses, the advancement of technology in the rifles that they used caused more death because of better accuracy. The result of thousands of casualties in each battle led to the medical facilities to be overwhelmed. Many soldiers would die because of they were not able to be treated in time. Faced with many horrors, soldiers from both sides would run run away because of fear, hunger, or sickness.

Many Northern and Southern women took on new responsibilities during the war. Women in both the North and South played different roles at home while their husbands, fathers, sons, and brothers were at war. Some became teachers, office workers, and managed their farms. Others performed many jobs that helped the soldiers in the armies. They rolled bandages, wove blankets, and made ammunition. Additional to that women also collected food, clothing, and medicine to distribute to the troops, and raised money for supplies. Aside from all the handy work that women were in charge of some served as spies. Harriet Tubman and Rose O’Neal Greenhow spied for the North, unfortunately for Greenhow she was caught and exiled to the South. Another spy was Belle Boyd, she informed Confederate generals of Union army movements in the Shenandoah Valley. Those who did not want to stand back and watch what was going, disguised themselves as men and became soldiers. Loreta Janeta Velazquez was a woman who is an example of this, she repeatedly fought for the South at the First battle of Bull run and at Shiloh.

At first African Americans were not allowed to fight along with the North during the Civil War. President Lincoln was afraid that the border states would secede if he allowed former slaves to fight. As the war proceeded, more recruits were needed and President Lincoln was left with no other choice but to let them fight. In early 1863, the Union decided to officially allow African-Americans to join the army. Considering the fact that the South wanted slavery to continue, it was very dangerous for a black man to be fighting in the war. If captured by the Confederates while fighting for the Union, they were executed or sold back into slavery. At the end of the war, around 180,000 African-Americans had fought in the war making a major difference and helping the North to victory.

Women During the War

African Americans During the Civil War

A Soldiers Life

Life During The Civil War

Some children actually served in the army as soldiers, while others witnessed the horror of war from afar. Many children had to grow up quickly, taking on new responsibilities at home or on the warfront. As a result thousands of young boys between the ages of 13 and 17 fought in the Civil War. Many of these boys were killed or wounded in battle. The most famous of the boy soldiers during the Civil War was Johnny Clem. He tried to join the army at the age of 9, but was rejected because of his size and height. Not giving up he became the drummer boy at age 13. He continued as a soldier, then after the war he rose to the rank of Brigadier General. Some children served in the army camps. They would help wash dishes, fix meals, and set up the camp when it moved.

Children During the War

The Civil War was the most devastating conflict in American History. The war caused severe damage as well as thousands of casualties. The devastation left the South’s economy in a state of collapse, due to all the battles being fought there. Transportation systems, farms, and plantations lay in ruins all over the territory. The South needed to rebuild, this was soon known as the Reconstruction. The Reconstruction lasted between 1865-1877.

Negative Consequences

Results of the War

Besides all the Negative Consequences the war had to offer, the war also led to some pleased victories. The North was able to save the Union, as well as free millions of African Americans. The federal government was also strengthened and was now clearly more powerful than the states.

North Victory Causes