A war between citizens of the same country.

CIVIL WAR

The North had an enormous industrial advantage. At the beginning of the war, the Confederacy had only one-ninth the industrial capacity of the Union. In 1860, the North manufactured 97 percent of the country's firearms, 96 percent of its railroad locomotives, 94 percent of its cloth, 93 percent of its iron, and over 90 percent of its boots and shoes. 

North

 Leaders

-Abraham Lincoln

-William Sherman

-Ulysses S. Grant

Union States

The Union included the states of Maine, New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, California, Nevada, and Oregon.

The initial goal was to reconcile the Union, while its mid-war goal became to reunite states under a Union in which slavery was not tolerated.  The war from beginning to end would be a noble crusade for democracy for all people.

 One of the advantages that the South had in the civil war was they were fighting it defensively. This means that it was on their own turf that they knew. This allowed for battles to be fought on their homefront and easy ambushes. The second, they had many very expierienced leaders in the military. Most of them were trained in the Virginia Military Institute.

South

 Leaders

-Robert E. Lee

-Stonewall Jackson

-Nathan Bedford Forrest

-Jefferson Davis

Union States

The South had the states of South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee.

The main goal was to show independence from the Union and gain recognition as an independant nation. Their strategies were to hang on to as much land as they could and hopefully wait out the Union. They eventually began to attack the Northern states in hopes to dishearten them.

Secssion Events and Causes of the War

Peculiar Institution

 The peculiar institution is slavery in general. Both sides of the nation disagreed on this topic. The North disliked slavery while the South was for slavery

 Bleeding Kansas

Border ruffians came into kansas in an attempt to tip the vote. John Brown took his four sons and broadswords and hacked to death 5 slavery supporters.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether or not to allow slavery within their borders. The Act took place of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´.

Election of 1860

Lincoln was elected as president. The South disliked him so much that he didnt show up in their ballots. The South were divided whether or no they should leave the Union.

Battle of Fort Sumter

What happened?

 The first shot was fired at 4:30 pm. The Fort was low on supplies and the confederates attacked the resupply group to the fort. After this they shelled the fort for multiple hours and crumbled some of the walls. After 33 hours the Union surrendered. 

 Who was involved?

The Union and the confederates were involved in this. The Union soldiers held the fort while the Confederates attacked it.

When did it occur?

This event occured before the Civil War. This is the battle that kicked off the civil war. This battle occured on April 12, 1861. 

Why did it happen?

Abraham Lincoln sent a message to the confederates and gave them the option to fire or not. Jefferson Davis gave the order to attck the fort before the unarmed supply group could arrive.

What was the outcome?

After 33 hours of shelling the fort the Union finally surrendered. High seas kept naval support from defending the fort. Thousands of shots were exchanged on both sides of the battle, but there were no casualties. This was a wake up call to the North because this made Abraham Lincoln send out a request for 75,000 volunteer troops

Battle of First Bull Run

What happened?

 It happened 5 miles away from a town called Manasas Junction. The Union drove back the confederates at first. Eventually the confederates rallied and forced the Union soldiers to retreat. The Union soldiers retreated and colllided with bystanders.

 Who was involved?

This battle was between an inexpierienced Union force and a smaller and equally inexpierienced Confederate force. The confederates were led by Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson.

When did it occur?

This event was the first main battle of the Civil War. . This battle occured on July 16, 1861.

Why did it happen?

Abraham Lincoln sent His army to attack Bull Run in order to open a way to Richmon, the confederate capitol. This would cause a quick end to an otherwise bloody war.

What was the outcome?

After the retreat of the Union soldiers shocked the North. Abraham Lincoln called for more volunteers for the army. he signed 2 bills requesting 1 million soldiers, who would serve three years. Lincoln also appointed a new general, George McClellan. 

Battle of Fort Donelson

What happened?

 Ulysses Grant and his army had just captured Fort Henry and moved on to Fort Donelson. Fort Donelson is on the Cumberland. After multiple days of shelling the fort Ulysses told Buckner that he wanted unconditional surrender. 

 Who was involved?

This battle was between a confederate fort and Ulysses Grant with his 12,000 man army. Simon Buckner and his army were inside the fort and realised they were trapped.

When did it occur?

This event was a turning point for the North. It occurred on February 11, 1862 and ended on February 16, 1862. 

Why did it happen?

The Union was attempting to capture forts in strategic poisitons in order to gain an advantage against the Confederacy.

What was the outcome?

 This was a major victory for Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and a catastrophe for the South. It ensured that Kentucky would stay in the Union and opened up Tennessee for a Northern advance along the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. The Union had 2,600 casualties while the Confederacy had 13,900

Battle of Hampton Roads

What happened?

The Confederate's ironclad, Virginia, steamed into Hampton Roads where it destroyed a couple of Union ships. On March 9, the Union ironclad Monitor having fortuitously arrived to do battle, initiated the first engagement of ironclads in history. The two ships fought each other to a standstill, but Virginia retired.

 Who was involved?

 The Union fought with1 ironclad and 5 wooden frigates. The Confederacy fought with1 ironclad, 2 wooden warships, 1 gunboat, and 2 tenders

When did it occur?

This event was a turning point for warfare. This was the first battle with ironclads. This event occured March 8, 1862 – March 9, 1862. 

Why did it happen?

The Union was attempting to block the ports of the Confederacy. This caused many problems for them because it didnt allow them to get food, guns, and ammo. The Confederates formed a ironclad to destroy the ships blocking the ports. 

What was the outcome?

 This was a major victory for Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and a catastrophe for the South. It ensured that Kentucky would stay in the Union and opened up Tennessee for a Northern advance along the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. The Union had 2,600 casualties while the Confederacy had 13,900

Battle of Shiloh

What happened?

40,000 Confederate soldiers under the command of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston poured out of the nearby woods and struck a line of Union soldiers occupying ground near Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. The Confederate offensive drove the unprepared Union forces from their camps and threatened to overwhelm Ulysses S. Grant’s entire command. Anothe Union army came in to support and helped them defeat the confederates.

 Who was involved?

General Grant and 40,000 troops marched to Pittsburgh Landing. 25,000 more troops were marching in to support. General Johnston and his army attack the Union soldiers.

When did it occur?

This event occured April 6, 1862 – April 7, 1862

Why did it happen?

The Union was attempting to infiiltrate the south by following the Tennessee River. When they camped out. The Rebels launched a surprise attack on them

What was the outcome?

 The two day battle at Shiloh produced more than 23,000 casualties and was the bloodiest battle in American history at its time.

Battle of Second Bull Run

What happened?

Jacksons army went north to attack Popes supply fort. The ywere joined by the rest of Lee's army. Pope's army attacked first and started the Second Battle of Bull Run. This battle ended in a Confederate victory.

 Who was involved?

It was the offensive attack waged by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia against Union Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia, and a battle of much larger scale and numbers than the First Battle of Bull Run fought on July 21, 1861 on the same ground.

When did it occur?

This event occured April 6, 1862 – April 7, 1862

Why did it happen?

The Confederate army was attempting to infiiltrate the supply base at Manassas. The Union soldiers attacked as they approached

What was the outcome?

 The two day battle at Shiloh produced more than 23,000 casualties and was the bloodiest battle in American history at its time.

Battle of Antietam

What happened?

McClellan hesitated the attack and waited four days. In this time Lee was able to get his army in several strategic positions. When he finally attacked it initiated the bloodiest battle of US history.

 Who was involved?

 McClellan and his army attack Lee and his army.

When did it occur?

This event occured September 17, 1862. The Union was in desperate need of a victory.

Why did it happen?

The Confederate army was attempting to infiiltrate the North. They were given the order from Davis to go into Maryland. This caused one of the bloodiest battles.

What was the outcome?

It was the bloodiest single day battle in American history, with over 23,000 casualties. The Union victory there led to the Emancipation Proclamation.

Battle of Frederiscksburg

What happened?

Burnside mounted a series of futile frontal assaults on Prospect Hill and Marye’s Heights that resulted in staggering casualties. Meade’s division, on the Union left flank, briefly penetrated Jackson’s line but was driven back by a counterattack.On December 15, Burnside called off the offensive.

 Who was involved?

The Battle of Fredericksburg was fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, between General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General Ambrose Burnside.

When did it occur?

This event occured December 11–15, 1862. The Union was in desperate need of a victory.

Why did it happen?

The Confederate army was attempting to infiiltrate the North. They were given the order from Davis to go into Maryland. This caused one of the bloodiest battles.

What was the outcome?

Confederate victory and one of the most lopsided defeats of the Civil War for Union forces. The battle had over 18,000 casualties.

Battle of Chancellorsville

What happened?

Jackson, with 30,000 Confederates, would follow a route to the Union right and from there conduct an attack on that exposed flank. The May 2, 1863 flank attack stunned the Union and threatened Hooker’s position, but the victorious Confederate attack ended with the mortal wounding of Stonewall Jackson. On May 3, 1863, the Confederates resumed their offensive and drove Hooker’s larger army back to a new defensive line.

 Who was involved?

The Battle of Chancellorville was fought BY the Union leader Maj. Gen. Joseph "Fighting Joe" Hooker's army. They attacked Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army.

When did it occur?

This event occured April 30, 1863 – May 6, 1863. The Union was in desperate need of a victory.

Why did it happen?

  Hooker crossed the Rappahannock River and maneuvered part of his massive army onto the flank of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.  A strong contingent of Hooker’s army threatened the Confederate lines opposite Fredericksburg.

What was the outcome?

Lee’s victory came at a high cost. “Stonewall” Jackson, one of the most trusted generals, was terminally wounded by friendly fire during the battle. There were 133,708 soldiers alltogether.  There were about 30,000 casualties.

Assault on Vicksburg

What happened?

Ulysses S. Grant’s armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and enclosing a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after multiple siege operations.

 Who was involved?

The Siege of Vicksburg was fought by the Union leader Ulysses S. Grant's army. They attacked Lt. Gen. John Pemberton's army.

When did it occur?

This event occured May 18, 1863 – July 4, 1863. The Union was in desperate need of a victory.

Why did it happen?

  Union forces under the command of Major General Ulysses S. Grant began advancing deep into Mississippi to strike against the crucial city of Vicksburg. Sitting atop bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River, Vicksburg was vital to the Western Theater of the war. 

What was the outcome?

With the loss of Pemberton’s army and this vital stronghold on the Mississippi, the Confederacy was effectively split in half. Grant's successes in the West boosted his reputation, leading ultimately to his appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies.

Battle of Gettysburg

 Who was involved?

Hooker failed to attack Lee's army. When this happened he was replaced by General George Meade. He was instructed to find and destroy General Lee's army.

What happened?

On July 1, early Union success fluttered as Confederates pushed back against the Iron Brigade and exploited a weak Federal line. The following day saw Lee strike the Union flanks, leading to heavy battle at Devil's Den, Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Peach Orchard, Culp’s Hill and East Cemetery Hill. Southerners captured Devil’s Den and the Peach Orchard, but ultimately failed to dislodge the Union defenders. On the final day, July 3rd, fighting raged at Culp’s Hill with the Union regaining its lost ground. After being cut down by a massive artillery bombardment in the afternoon, Lee attacked the Union center on Cemetery Ridge and was shut down in what is now known as Pickett’s Charge.

What was the outcome?

 Union casualties in the battle numbered 23,000, while the Confederates had lost some 28,000 men. Meade and his army did not pursue the oppposing army.

Why did it happen?

Lee was moving into the North and was posing a threat toward Washington. Lincoln assigned Meade to hunt him down and destroy his force.

When did it occur?

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

Surrender of Appamatox & Terms of Surrender

 Who was involved?

It was the final engagement of Confederate Army general Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia before it surrendered to the Union Army under Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant

What happened?

Heading West to Appomattox Station, where food supplies awaited, the Confederates were cut off and surrounded by Union troops near the small village of Appomattox Court House.  Despite a final desperate attempt to escape, Lee’s army was trapped.  General Lee surrendered his remaining troops to General Grant at the McLean House on the afternoon of April 9.

What was the outcome?

The soldiers engaged were Union Army: 120,000 | Confederate Army: 30,000
The outcome was a Union Victory
The casualties were Union: 260 | Confederate: 440; over 27,000 surrendered

Why did it happen?

Lee was moving into Appomatox Station to get more supplies for his soldiers. Grant was waiting for him there.

When did it occur?

The Battle of Appomattoxwas fought on the morning of April 9, 1865. It was one of the last battles of the American Civil War.

General Ulysses S. Grant

One of the most honored and respected military leaders in U.S. history. Grant graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1843 and later began leading soldiers in battle. He was promoted to brigadier general and placed in charge of 20,000 Union troops, which he led to many victories during the Civil War. He made his reputation in Tennessee, at Fort Donelson and at theBattle of Shiloh. Of his later victories, three that stood out were theVicksburg, Chattanooga, and the Overland campaigns.

General Robert E. Lee

Robert E. Lee served as a military officer in the U.S. Army, a West Point commandant and the legendary general of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.  He got his education from the United States Military Academy. He was eventally promoted to General and placed to lead an army. Lee achieved great success during the Peninsula Campaign and at Second Bull Run (Mansassas) and Fredericksburg, with his greatest victory coming in the bloody Battle of Chancellorsville.

Children

Children were a critical part of the Civil War. They comprised a much bigger portion of the US population in 1860 than in the 21st century, with persons under age 19 making up nearly half of the population. Many children took up arms and fought in the war.

Life During The Civil War

Women

Women began working jobs they had never done before. These were jobs such as managing farms, teachers, and office workers. They also performd jobs that helped the armies. This included weaving blankets, rolling bandages, and making ammunition. The war affected almost all women. Women also served as spies that would "entertain" The other army's leaders for plans.

African Americans

Both the Union and the Confederates brought African American troops to the battlefield. Units from the United States Colored Troops (USCT) fighting for the Union made their mark on Civil War. The Union victory at Island Mound in October 1862 was the first engagement of African-American soldiers.

Results of The Civil War

The Civil War caused a large amount of destruction and chaos, primarily in the South, but also led to the movement toward equality of all humans. There were over 600,000 deaths in the 4 year span of the civil war. The war also caused billions of dollars of damage across the nation. Most of this was in the South. The South had a total economical collapse. Two-Thirds of the transportation was destroyed. This included pulverised bridges and rent railways. The Federal Government was saved and brought back to power. The war freed millions of African Americans. These African Americans fought their own battles with society. The following years were known as Reconstruction.

Bibliography

 

-www.civilwar.org

-www.history.com

 

-Social Studies Textbook