ARCHITECTURE

ANTIQUITY ARCHITECTURE 

 

The first architectonic method in develop was the military 

The religious architectonic was the most important in the antiquity. The humanity believed in living gods, geniuses and demos; a world that didn't know the science. They explain their lives

 

With the supernatural, for this reason their architecture was based in temples and palaces. 

 

Ancient Egypt architecture :

  •  they used carverds stone in big blocks and solid columns 
  • the monuments were made by the peasant for the pharaoh 
  • pyramids are a lot of recognized in the actuality, these were tombs of pharaohs
  • walls, inside and outsides, columns and roofs were covered with hieroglyph, illustrations and sculpture painted in brilliant colors. A lot of decoration had a meaning.

Hipodamo of Miletusis 

CLASSIC ARCHITECTURE CAN DIVIDE:

  • Ancient Greece architecture
  • Hellenistic architecture
  • Anncient rome architecture

The formal elements of Greece architecture were applied to temples for deities that never they worshiped

 

the Greek architect Hipodamo of Miletusis considered the firts planer Greeks 

CLASSIC ARCHITECTURE 

 

Piraeus map showing the plane on city grid

CLASSIC ANTIQUITY ARCHITECTURE 

It is a primitive meaning of expression and construction. It started to generate thoughts and beliefs about the primitive cultures 

  • the megalithic constructions consists on huge stone with slabs without carving, or hardly devastated, vertical and horizontal, pillare, supported, never United with mortar, or some type  of rig 
  • the cyclopean constructions named for the ancient Greeks, have been attributed to fabulous Giants called Cyplos; they were with simple store stones, partly squared, although etched, and with a smaller volume that the megalithic, using sometimes mortar to make walls

The first appeared in the Neolithic period, continued in the early days of the age of copper. the lastest belong to the ages of cooper, bronze or iron.

 

Belonging to the primitive are known different buildings that served as home to our ancestors from the earliest times. Such are: 

  • the cabin or hut, made by lattices of ramaje 
  • the cave or cavern, artificial or natural, but accommodated by the hand of man in their own applications 
  • the piles or wood lake rooms raised on piles driven into the bottom of a lake or wetland (Neolithic and are aimed at defense against wild animals)
  • the crannogs, typical of Ireland, lake islets as dwellings, without leaving the water to pass under them 
  • the terramare, discovered in Italy , huts of wood and clay in shampy places. With those buildings listed in the where abouts or kiokenmodingos (Danish word meaning remains of home) which are mounds formed by deposits of shells, remains of ash, charcoal, bones, stones and coarse pottery shards, very abundant in Denmark, also found in other regions. 

MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE

Hagia Sophia, Constantinople

 

The main fact that influenced the medieval architectural production was the enrichment of the life in the cities.

 

The church contributed the needed capital fordevelopment of the big architectonic Works.

The technology of this period was used in the construction of cathedrals.

 

During medieval period, the architect didn’t exist. The construction was made by all people.

The constructive knowledge is saved by the guilds that gathered tens of teachers and workers. 

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE (CENTURY III, IV, V)

The fundamental spatial properties of the primitive church architecture were:

• The central space (first implemented in the pantheon) in which man protagonist of space and architecture and feel.

• The longitudinal spaces (such as basilicas) inferred that the travel character architecture.

 • A sharp interior, which is defined by a lavish interior decoration, which determined its dematerialization and gave the space a spiritual character.

The Byzantine church was conceived as an image of the cosmos, where the dome representing the sky, while the bottoms were the "land" area. 

 Trends in medieval age 

VISIGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

 ARCHITECTURE ELEMENTS: 

The main components of Visigothic architecture can be set in this way for the churches themselves:

•Plano's basilica Latin, with three naves and an apse square (sometimes in herradura) in which there was the altar only.

•metal exempt and monolithic to divide

 •Arcos Horseshoe and also of half a point and cantered.

•capiteles of Corinthian or composite order degenerate and with low relief sculpture.

•Techumbre dome canon or quarter sphere in the apses.

 •Walls of stone and wood on ships buttresses are used without combination of ladrillo

•No and the countermeasures is accomplished with the thickness of the walls.

•the windows tend to be of stone openwork.

•the ornamentation follows the Byzantine forms of Star, crosses, florets and several reasons geometric.

•the walls are decorated with paintings or coatings of marble and mosaic floors, today missing

The Horseshoe arch: used by the Visigoths is distinguished from the Mohammedan in his boot, its amplitude and its height

Hosios Loukas in Greece

MEROVINGIAN ARCHITECTURE

 

Merovingian architecture adopted the system of Latin basilica with its degenerate classic capitals and the great development of the abacus in them. There are only from the Merovingian period:

•the Church of San Juan de Poitiers (before, baptistery, rectangular and with apse)

•the crypt of the Church of Jouarre

• A crypt in Auxerre

•a crypt in San Lorenzo de Grenoble

The crypts are small vaulted buildings.

ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

THE MOSQUE

The principal monument is the mosque (masjid), place of worship for the Muslim community (Umma), which has little architectural requirements. Actually, just free land space of impurities, even without a cover, where the Muslim prays toward Mecca. But the first mosques in Syria are quick to create a monumental rectangular type, where its origins in Muhammad's house in Medina, you can add the echo of the early Christian basilicas.

Baptistery of cathedral Saint-Léonce of Fréjus

MOZARABIC ARCHITECTURE

Mozarabic architecture interpreted strictly in its definition, is reduced in these two examples

 • The Church of Bobastro: rock temple located in the place known like Tables of Villaverde, in Ardales (Málaga), of which only some ruins remain.

• The Santa María de Melque: located in the vicinity of La Puebla de Montalbán (Toledo). With regard to this temple is its stylistic affiliation doubt because Visigoths shares with other more properly Mozarabic features.

MUDEJAR ARCHITECTURE:

Mudéjar art isthe fusion of Islamic art and Christian art.

Features:

-high stored towers, horseshoe arches, archways entwined.

- To Effects of contrasts of light and shadow on the walls

-Use Of glazed ceramic for covering walls

-It is used to decorate wood and plaster

BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE.

Characteristics:

- Domes on scallops.

- Use of brick

- Central floor (Greek cross)

-decoration with paintings and mosaics in the walls.

ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

-It is the reasoned and harmonious combination of constructive and ornamental elements of latin, Eastern (Byzantines, Syrians, Persians and Arabs) and North origin (Celtic, Germanic, Norman)

 

-The main buildings of architecture were churches, monasteries and cathedrals.

 

CISTERCIAN ARCHITECTURE

 

Their style is a combination between the romance end and the Gothic begin, it's named "the transition style"
This constructions would be show the  Cistercian Order's aims like the silence, contemplation, simplicity and poverty.
Some characteristics that was used to build the chruch, monastery are:

 

-The use of the pointed arch

- rose window application

-The use of ogive vaults

-The construction should have simplicity in the inner and outer

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

 

it's characterized in the religious architecture (monasteries and churches), the most success of this architecture was the cathedrals. But also have Importance civil architecture ( palaces, commercial markets, town halls,

universities, hospitals and bourgeois homes) and military architecture (castles and walls)

It’s is characterized for
- the verticality and light,the divinity reflection

- The use of the pointed arch

- rose window application

-The use of ogive vaults

- Latin cross plant, there are: the header, and cruise ships, three to five .

MODERN AGE

  •  Began to arise nation states and the Protestant Reformation appears.
  • Began there naissance

 

 
RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE
The important thing for the renaissance people are the cult 
of knowledge and reason


The renaissance architecture was classical. The learned 
knowledge in the medieval period, like the domes and
arcades control, wasaplicate in new forms.
Theperspectivediscoverywasreallyimportant, well, 
the idea of infinite, was really use space conception
for the architects of the time.

The perspective represented a new form to understand
the space like something universal, understandable,
controllable means of the reason.
The draw was the principal way to sketch.

Principal architect of the age:

JacopoVignola, Alberti, Brunelleschi y Miguel Ángel.

    ARCHITECTURAL STYLES

BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE

The main characteristic of the baroque architecture was the utilization of compositions based in curved lines, ellipses and spirals.

Characteristics:

-Architectures loaded of details

-Use the classic forms. (Columns, arches, facades, friezes).

- The walls are concave and convex.

- The works are: palaces, religious, big gardens and galleries.

MANNERISM

With the evolution of the renaissance and the use of classic the artists began a period with ananteclasico feeling, but their works remain a classic air.

                       

Some elements of mannerism:
-are usual the windows that become for inside, the external stairs in inner wings alas of buildings, etc.
-Use a lot of the perspective

Miguel Ángel maybe the greatest exponent Mannerist.

NEOCLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE

 

At the end ofXVIII century and early ofXIX was discovered newstructural possibilities, Stone and Wood passed to be substituted by the concrete and the metal.

Neoclassical architecture reproduce generated forms by Greek and romans.

After of renaissance, the neoclassicism shows a simplification, using straight lines, less volumes contrasts and ornamentation. Use a lot of symmetry and the columns. The dominant volumes are cube and sphere that would be geometric forms that represent the perfection. 

 

CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

The contemporary architecture began with the technological advances by the industrial Revolution

 

The Industrial revolution and the French Revolution make a change in the architecture, first: contributed new building materials

second, contributed a prudentvision, well, theaimchangesThat led to theformation of democracies in theworld and led thearquetectos to detachtheluxury of thebuildings.

It's a architecture moderate, harmonic, that mix a lot of styles. 

- Commemorative Columns, palms and laurels, Temples, Arches of triumph

 

triumphal arch

The Engineering began to have a greater role, the economy of means, the purity of the lines, the shortest time for construction, technical facilities and shortage of ornate ornaments

The iron, steel, zinc and glass were becoming part of a new, closer to then gineering design concept to architectural design. 

Brooklyn Bridge

Eiffel Tower