By:Devonny Banks


The Definition of Civil War is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.

Table of Contents Table of Contents

Page 1 : Table of Contents

Page 2: The South

Page 3: The North

Page 4: Secession events and Causes of Civil War

Page 5: Battle of Fort Sumter

Page 6: Battle of First Bull Run

Page 7:Battle of Fort Donelson

Page 8: Battle of Hampton Roads

Page 9: Battle of Shiloh

Page 10: Battle of Second Bull Run

Page 11: Battle of Antietam

Page 12: Battle of Fredericksburg

Page 13: Battle of Chancellorsville

Page 14:Assualt on Vicksburg

Page 15: Battle of Gettysburg

Page 16 : Surrender at Appomattox & Terms of Surrender

Page 17 : Important Person of Civil War

Page 18: Important Person of Civil War

Page 19: Life During Civil War

Page 20: Results of the war


The South


Leaders: Jefferson Davis, John Adams, Tyree H. Bell, "Old Rock Benning, Henry DeLemar Clayton, Henry Eustace McCulloch, and more

States belonging to South: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas, Florida, Alabama, Texas, Georgia, Louisiana,

Strengths:  fought in familiar territory which means they were defending their land, their homes, and their way of life, families had strong tradition of military training.

Weaknesses: The South had a smaller population, it possessed few factories to manufacture weapons, and it had less food. They had difficulty delivering food. They also has less railroads.

War aims: To win recognition as an independent nation, to preserve their traditional way of life- which included slavery.

Strategy: They planned to defend its homeland, holding on to as much territory as possible until the North got tired of fighting. They expected Britain and France to pressure the North to end the war.

Nicknames: Confederacy, Bushwackers, Greybacks

The North




Leaders: Abraham Lincoln,  George B. McClellan, Ulysses S. Grant, David Farragut, William Tecumseh Sherman, and more

States belonging to North: Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, California, Kansas, and more

Strengths: Larger population, more industry, and more abundant resources, better banking system, more efficient railway and ships

Weaknesses: Bringing southern states to join Union would be difficult, they would have to invade south, had to occupy Confederacy's territory and subdue the population

War Aims: Bring southern states back into the union, and to end slavery

Strategy: First, they would blockade Southern ports to prevent supplies from reaching South. Second, they had to gain control of the Mississippi River to cut Southern supply lines. Lastly, they would have to take over the Confederate capital

Nicknames: Union, Rebels,Yankees  


Secession Events and Causes of Civil War

Secession Events:

The Dred Scott Supreme Court Case decision angered Northern anti- slavery forces which escalated tension leading to secession

  • On November 6, 1860 South Carolina and 6 other states seceded from the Union

  • Later on there was a total of 11 states that seceded from the Union, some of them threatened to secede when Abraham Lincoln became president

Causes of the Civil War

  • The Missouri Compromise was made to balance the power between slaveholding states and free states

  • The Dred Scott decision outraged the Northern Abolitionists

  • The Abolitionist Movement was an effort to end slavery, over time abolitionists became more strident in there demands

  • When John Brown raided Harpers Ferry it angered people because he seized the aresnol and armery

  • The Underground railroad was a network of passageways that slaves could go on to escape and be free

  • The secession of Southern States lead to the establishment of the Confederacy and the civil war

  • The election of Abraham Lincoln was thought of the first event of many that lead to the civil war


Battle of Fort Sumter

North Leader: Robert Anderson

South Leader: P. G. T Beauregard

When: April 12, 1861- April 14, 1861


Robert Anderson positioned his soldiers at Fort Moultrie which was originally called Fort Sullivan.They then moved to Fort Sumter which is where the first shots of the civil war happened


Major Anderson positioned his soldiers at Fort Moultrie, then he moved them to Fort Sumter because he worried about the safety of his army. On April 11th P. G. T Beauregard dispatched to Robert Anderson to surrender Fort Sumter but Anderson refused. The next morning at 4:30 AM Confederate batteries opened fire at Fort Sumter which continued for 34 hours. Anderson did not respond to the fire for the first 2 hours. The firing  continued the whole day and the Union fire aimed to conserve ammunition. On April 13, Robert Anderson finally surrendered. This was the start if the Civil War.


Leading up to this battle 7 states just seceded, and South Carolina demanded that the US Army abandon it facilities at Charleston Harbor

 Winner/ Outcome:

The winner of this battle was the Confederecy. There was no casualties on either side that happened during the battle. During the evacuation of the town one soldier was killed and one soldiere was badly wounded.

Battle of First Bull Run


North Leader:  General Irvin McDowell & Daniel Tyler

South Leaders: P.G.T Beauregard & Joseph E. Johnston

When: July 21, 1861


  • Manassas, Virginia: the first place the army settled

  • Fairfax County: the second place of the war

  • Prince William County: the third place of the war


July 16, 1861 is when Irvin McDowell set out with his army of Northeastern Virginia, from Washington to attack the Confederate forces near Manassas. General P. G. T Beauregard has his troops fanned out along Bull Run north of town. On the 21st McDowell attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthew Hill. Beauregard thought this was only a distraction so he gathered his troops and flanked the Unions left. The fighting raged throughout the day and the Union was able to drive back the Confederate forces. The Confederate forces then became victorious when the Union thought the battle was to costly.


Two months after the shots were fired at Fort Sumter by the Confederacy, the Union quickly got war fever. Lincoln told l Irvin McDowell to make a offense that would quickly open the way to Richmond, which would bring to the war to a quick end

 Winner/ Outcome:The Confederacy won this battle, it was a sad loss for the Union.  For the Union, there was 2, 700 casualties. For the Confederacy there were 2,000 casualties. The number of casualties on both sides were a wake up call. The union general got replaced with Major General George B. McClellan




Battle of Fort Donelson

North Leader: Ulysses S. Grant

South Leader: General John B

When: February 11, 1862- February 12, 1862


  • Fort Donelson, Tennessee: It was the battleground of the 2nd civil war battle


  • General Ulysses S. Grants to move  to attack Fort Henry before Confederate reinforcements could arrive was approved by Henry Halleck.  As Grants divisions made their journey on foot south, gunboats proceeded down the river to attack confederate forts Grant was determined to move onto Fort Donelson. The ironclads moved upriver to bombard Fort Donelson. The heavy guns lead to a Union victory.


  • After capturing Fort Henry on February 6, 1862, Ulysses S. Grant advanced cross-country to try to capture Fort Donelson. They also attack because Tennessee provided access to the Cumberland River.

Winner/ Outcome:

  • The Union won this battle which was a sad loss for the Confederacy. On the Union there were 2,600 casualties. On the Confederate side there were 13, 800 casualties. Ulysses S. Grant received a promotion to major general and he got  stature in the Western Theater, which got him the nom de guerre which means “Unconditional Surrender”

Battle of Hampton Roads

North Leaders: Louis M. Goldsborough

South Leaders:  Franklin Buchanan

When: March 8, 1862- March 9, 1862


  • Of Sewells Point, Near Hampton Roads, Virginia: Hampton Road is the name of both a body of water and the area surrounding it


  • It was a battle fought on water by ironclad ships of war, the CSS Virginia was commanded by Franklin Buchanan to try and defeat the CSS Cumberland off the coast of Newport News, Virginia.  At about 2 AM March 8th the CSS Virginia struck the Cumberland with its 1,500lb iron ram, which left a hole in its wooden hull. The CSS Virginia went 200 yard away. The CSS Cumberland then lowered its flag and surrendered. Franklin then came out of his ship and got hit with a musket ball. Frankin needed help so Virginia broke off the attack and went to shore.


  • The reason the Confederacy started the Battle of Hampton Roads is because it was part of their effort to break the Union Blockade of Southern Ports

Winner/ Outcome:

  • The winner of The Battle Of Hampton Road was inconclusive both of the sides claimed victory in this battle. There was 500 casualties in the Union, and in the Confederacy there were 100 casualties. Catesby Jones was now in charge of the Virginia since Franklin was majorly hurt, he prepared the ironclad for another assault, this battle made a huge impact on the future of naval warfare

Battle of Shiloh

North Leaders:

  • Ulysses S. Grant, Army of the Tennessee

  • Don Carlos Buell, Army of the Ohio

South Leaders:

  • Albert Sidney Johnston, Army of the Mississippi

  • P.G.T. Beauregard, Army of Mississippi

When:  April 6, 1862- April 7, 1862


  • Pittsburg Landing

  • Hardin County, Tennessee


  • On the morning of April 6, 1862 soldiers from the South came out of the woods and started to fight Union soldiers that were at ground near Pittsburg Landing. They drove the Union back to Shilohs Church. Throughout the day they continued to fight and they pushed the Union even farther to Pittsburg Landing. The Confederacy started to get weaker and weaker as more Union troops slowly started to flow in. When Johnston finally made it to the battlefield, he was shot in the leg causing him to bleed out. Beauregard to control of the army. As more Unions started coming in the Confederacy slowly retreated.


  • When Fort Henry and Donelson were taken over Johnston was forced to fall back, he gave up most of his land. He chose places for a strong staging area for an offense against Grant before they could join Johnstons transportation centers.

Winner/ Outcome:

  • The winner of The Battle of Shiloh was the Union. There were 66,000 casualties on the Union side, and there were 44,700 casualties on the Confederate side. After this war. This war had the most casualties out of all the previous wars. This was a reminder that the war would be long and costly.

Battle of Second Bull Run

North Leaders: General John Pope

South Leaders: General Robert E. Lee

When: August 28, 1862- August 30, 1862

Where: Manassas, Virginia


  • On August 28th Jackson ordered an attack on a column that was passing where his front was on the Warrenton Turnpike. Poke was determined that he trapped Jackson. On August 29th Pope made assaults on Jackson's position, which caused a lot of casualties on both sides. Pope was unaware that another army was on the field. The other army of 28,000 men counterattacked in the largest mass assault of the war. The Union had to go back to Bull Run to stay safe.


  • He started this battle because he wanted  to draw Pope’s army into battle, Lee also wanted to get rid of the threat that the newly formed army Virginia was posing.

Winner/ Outcome:

  • The winner of The Battle of Second Bull Run was the Confederacy. There were many casualties on both sides. The Union had 62,000 casualties and the Confederacy had 50,000 casualties.  Since many people died and they lost the battle, despair rolled over the North. Many people said that Pope was the one to blame for losing the battle

Battle of Antietam

North Leaders: General George B. McClellan, Joseph Hooker

South Leaders: General Robert E. Lee

When: September 17, 1862


  • Sharpsburg, Maryland

  • Washington County, Maryland


  • On September 6th, 1862 McCellan and his union army confronted Lee’s army at Sharpsburg, Maryland, Hooker’s army mounted a powerful assault of Lee’s flank. There were repeated Union attacks and repeated Confederate counterattacks and they swept back and forward. The union had an advantage in the center field but it soon went away. Despite it being 2 to 1 Lee still kept on fighting. When it was night time both leaders took care of the people that got wounded. It was the bloodiest day in american military history.


  • The Battle of Antietam was caused because General Robert E. Lee wanted to follow up his victory on the Battle of the Second Bull Run

Winner/ Outcome:

  • In the Battle of Antietam the Union won. There were 12, 400 casualties on the Union side, there were  10,300 casualties on the Confederate side. The outcome of this battle is Lee withdrew from Virginia. The win for the Union provided

Battle of Fredericksburg

North Leaders: General Ambrose E. Burnside

South Leader: Robert E. Lee

When: December 11, 1862- December 15, 1862

Where: Fredricksburg, Virginia


  • Burnside's plan in this battle was to use about 60,000 soldiers to crush Lee’s southern flank while the rest of the army held Longstreet. The Union's main attempt against Stonewall Jackson produced success with the promise of destroying the right, but the lack of reinforcements changed the success. Stonewells attempt to get the Confederate soldiers behind a wall produced a great amount of casualties. Soldier after soldier the federal soldiers marched to take the heights but they all failed. As darkness fell on the battlefield, it was clear that the Union side did not win this battle.


  • The Battle of Fredericksburg occurred because it was the Union's last attempt to regain  the initiative in its struggle against Lee's smaller but more powerful army.

Winner/ Outcome:

  • The winner of the Battle of Fredericksburg was the Confederacy. There was 12,700 casualties on the Union side, there was 5,300 casualties on the Confederate side. A couple of weeks after the Battle president lincoln removed Burnside from command of the Army.


Battle of Chancellorsville

North Leader: General Joseph Hooker

South Leader: General Robert E. Lee

When: April 30, 1863- May 6, 1863


  • Chancellorsville, Virginia

  • Spotsylvania, Virginia


  • Hooker outmaneuvered Lee when the weather finally allowed the roads to harden enough for marching. Hooker closed up on the  Chancellorsville intersection. Lee got his army quickly on May 1, 1863. Jackson took many men of Lee’s army so he only had about 15,000 men to take on Hooker's army. Jackson then unleashed an overwhelming attack on Hooker's right flank and rear which moved the Northern Army back by about 2 miles. Jackson got held back because his army mistakenly fired his own men. The Confederate artillery round smashed into a pillar which Hooker was leaning on so he spent several hours unconscious. The battle continued throughout the day.


  • The Battle of Chancellorsville was caused because the Union army of the Potomac launched it second major attempt to get across Rappahannock River.

Winner/ Outcome:

  • The winner of the Battle of Chancellorsville was the Confederacy. There was 97,000 casualties on the Union side and there was 57,000 casualties on the Confederate side. This was a major victory for Lee because Hooker's army was twice Lees army's size, but it ended the death of “Stonewall Jackson”


Assault on Vicksburg

North Leader: General Ulysses S. Grant

South Leader: General John C. Pemberton

When: May 18, 1863- July 4. 1863


  • Vicksburg, Mississippi

  • Warren County


  • Grant under took a bold new campaign on Vicksburg  and the confederate defenders. After conducting a surprise landing below Vicksburg, Grant's forces moved inland which pushed back the threat posed by Johns army.After there was n o where in his sight he turned his sight to Vicksburg. Grant was hoping for a quick attack, so he ordered Sherman's corps to attack along Graveyard Road. Three days later assaults were made that were coordinated, all three columns were repulsed, which had a total loss of over 3,000 men. Inside Vicksburg citizens huddled in caves to dodge the cannon shells. Even though the Confederacy lost there  wasn't a lot of losses.


  • Grant and the Army of Tennessee had been trying to wrest away the Confederate fortress of Vicksburg, his previous attempts were blocked by dreft rebel counter moves.

Winner/ Outcome:

  • The winner of the Assault on Vicksburg was the Union. There were 75,000 casualties on the Union, and 34,000 casualties on the Confederate side. The Confederacy had been divided east and west after the battle.

Battle of Gettysburg

North Leader: General George G. Meade

South Leader: General Robert E. Lee

When:  July 1, 1863- July 3, 1863

Where:  Gettysburg, Pennsylvania


  • Lee led his army to the second invasion of the North, which was in Gettysburg. The two armies collided on July 1st. When more generals reached the scene 30,000 confederates already  defeated 20,000 unions. The Yankees then fell back through Gettysburg to the town of Cemetery Hill. The Union defended the range of hills south of Gettysburg using about 90,000 soldiers. On july 2nd lee launched a heavy assault on the Unions left flank. The Confederates gained ground later on, but the union still had a strong position in this war. On July 3rd, the fighting still continued. Lee then lead his army back to Virginia.


  • This battle took place because General lee intended to collect supplies in Pennsylvania, he also intended to weaken the North's desire for war which will also include threatening the Northern cities.

  • Winner/ Outcome:
  • The winner of The Battle of GettysBurg was the Union. There was 23,049 casualties on the Union side, and there was 28,063 casualties on the Confederacy side. Four months after the battle,  President Lincoln has a dedication ceremony for the people killed in the Battle of Gettysburg

Surrender at Appomattox & Terms of Surrender





When: April 9, 1865

Where: Appomattox Court House

Surrender at Appomattox Court House Summary:

  • This occured when General lee submitted to Union general Ulysess Grant which ended the American Civil War. On April 2, 1865- April 3, 1865 Lee and his army retreated to Appomattox Court House. This is where the Army of the James forced them to raise a white flag.  Soon, Grant hosted his adversary in a drawing room in the house of  Wilmer McLean. Lee, in a suit accepted the terms from Grant who was with the Confederate soldiers. Lee then issued his farewell orders.

Terms of Surrender:

  • “Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to an officer to be designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate. The officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the government of the United States until properly exchanged; and each company or regimental commander to sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, artillery, and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to the officers appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to his home, not to be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside.”


Important Person of Civil War:

General Ulysses S. Grant

Born: April 27, 1822 at Point Pleasant

Died: July 23, 1885 at Wilton

What did Ulysses S. Grant do in the civil war:

  • Grant first volunteered his military services but he was constantly turned down. In April 1861 Ulysses S. Grant became the colonel of the 21st Illinois Volunteers later in the year Abraham Lincoln made him a general of the District of Southeast Missouri. Grants forces took on Fort donelson and Fort Henry and he captured them both.  After the attack on Fort Donelson he earned the moniker “Unconditional Surrender Grant” . There was many battles later on then Lee surrendered. After the war grant was promoted to full general. After that Grant was elected the 18th president of the United States. He then left the place as president, life as a civilian was hard but he managed, he became a partner of a financial firm. That same year, he was suffering from throat cancer. He died, but now is face is on the 50 dollar bill.  

Important Person of Civil War:

General Robert E. Lee

Born: January 19, 1807 at Stratford Hall, Virginia

Died: October 12, 1870 at Lexington, Virginia

What did they do in the war:

  • Robert E. Lee was married to Mary Custis and they had 7 children together. Since Lee's army loyalties moved moved him around the country Mary had to stay in her father's plantation with her 7 kids. In 1859 Lee returned to the Army and took a position at a cavalry post. Lee soon got a break when he had to go put a end of slavery insurrection led by John Brown at Harpers Ferry.Lincoln offered Lee a job to lead the Union forces, bur he turned it down. He then moved back to his hometown and took a job leading the Confederate forces. Over the next years he distinguished himself on the battlefield. Lee then surrendered at the Appomattox Court House. He then accepted a job as a president at a small college. Lee suffered a massive stroke and died at his house surrounded by family.


Life During the Civil War

Life during the Civil War for women:

  • Women in the South had to take roles to support their families and the Confederacy. Some women had to go into working for different organization. Some of the other women had to do other things like sewing that were to be shipped to soldiers that they knew.  The women may have cooked or made thing for their boys, or provided uniforms, blankets, or sandbags for the people in the war.  They could have wrote letters for soldiers, or even worked as nurses or cared for the wounded in their own home.

Life during the civil war for children:

  • The kids that were 18 and older would have been sent to the Army. The younger boys may have been sent to the army as bugle boys or drummer boys. Many kids also helped to do chores around the army campsites. Many of these boys did not fight in the army, but once they started some did have to go and fight

Life for African Americans During the Civil War:

  • Some African Americans were sent to be in the war and train for the war. The African Americans that didn't get put in the war served in relief roles such as, working as cooks, nurses, and even blacksmiths. Some of the army's failed to believe that African American troops would actually fight in the wars.



Results of the Civil War:






There were many results of the Civil war, listed below are some of them:


  • After the war, slavery was abolished.

  • The Federal government assumed supreme national authority.

  • Both sides, the Confederate and union, lost many young children.

  • The Northern economy boomed and the Southern economy was devastated.

  • The Union was reunited.

  • Much of the South was destroyed.

  • The 14th, 13th, and 15th Amendments were passed.

  • Civil Rights  Act of 1866 weakened the black codes.

  • Abraham Lincoln passed the Emancipation Proclamation.

  • Made the South bitter towards the integration of African Americans.