This booklet tells of the Civil War, important people, events, and wars concerning the Civil War.

A civil war is a war between citizens of the same country. In this case, it is the Union against the Confederacy.

 

The Civil War

by Kaitlyn Nagac

A Few Leaders & Important People

  • President Lincoln
  • General Ullyses S. Grant
  • General George Mclellan
  • General Robert Anderson
  • General William Tecumseh Sherman
  • David Farragut

War Aims: 

Keep the Union together by bringing back the seceded states/the South

North - The Union

Yankees

Strengths 

  • President Lincoln
  • larger population
  • more industry
  • more abundant resources
  • better banking system
  • more ships
  • larger, more efficient railway network

Weaknesses 

  • had to invade unfamiliar territory
  • had to subdue a population of millions
  • Southern people's support for the war remained strong 

States of the Union

 

  • Maine
  • New York
  • New Hampshire
  • Vermont
  • Massachusetts
  • Connecticut
  • Rhode Island
  • Pennsylvania
  • New Jersey
  • Ohio

Strategies

  • blockade Southern ports in order to prevent the South from earning money or exporting cotton
  • gain control of the Mississippi River to cut Southern supply lines and to divide the Confederacy
  • gain control of the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virgina

 

  • Indiana
  • Illinois
  • Kansas
  • Michigan
  • Wisconsin
  • Minnesota
  • Iowa
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Oregon

South - The Confederacy

Rebels

A Few Leaders & Important People

  • Confederate President Jefferson Davis
  • General Robert E. Lee
  • General Stonewall Jackson
  • General P.G.T. Beauregard
  • General George Pickett

War Aims: 

Be recognized as an indepedent nation

Strengths 

  •  familiar terrain
  • support for war did not falter
  • at first, better military training and service
  • military college graduates provided an abundance of officers

Weaknesses 

  •  smaller population, less industry, less resources
  • produced less than half as much food as the North
  • less than half the miles of railroad tracks and fewer trains than the North; lead to difficulty delivering food, weapons, and other supplies to troops

States of the Confederacy

  • South Carolina
  • Mississippi
  • Florida
  • Alabama
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • Texas
  • Arkansas
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia 

Strategies

  • defend its homeland, keeping as much territory as possible until the North grew tired of fighting
  • attempt to receive help from Britain and France
  • generals also sometimes moved their armies northward to threaten Washington, D.C. and other Northern cities

Election of 1860

Abraham Lincoln was selected as the Republican candidate to run for president in 1860. He disagreed with slavery and claimed that a government that is divided would not last. Stephen Douglas was the Democratic candidate, and wanted to use popular sovereignty to resolve the issue.

The Peculiar Institution

During the 17th and 18th centuries, slavery was introduced to America. An estimated 645,000 Africans were imported over a course of 250 years when slavery was legal. It had created controversy and debates, and eventually a divide in the nation.

Secession Events and Cause of the Civil War

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1A-FiQb0HgnKa9uZ2SqbuNmM7l9HQO8shOOq336l5Kb0/edit#slide=id.g12aad11833_1_4

Secession

After Lincoln had won the election, he and the Republicans vowed not to disturb slavery where it had already existed. However, many people in the South did not find reliance in the party. It was on December 20, 1860, about six weeks after the election, that South Carolina held a convention in Charleston’s Succession Hall and voted to secede.

 

 

 

Kansas-Nebraska Act

President Stephen Douglas took into account that Southerners did not want Kansas and Nebraska to become free states. They did not want any more free states due to the fact that it would give the North more members in Senate. He thought that if he let the people in Kansas and Nebraska decide what they wanted using the power of popular sovereignty. However, many Northerners disliked this idea and protested.

Bleeding Kansas

With the establishment of the Kansas- Nebraska Act, people from the North and South had flooded into Kansas so they could overturn the quantity of votes. There was more violence throughout slavery. In the fall of 1855, John Brown and his sons had attacked and killed five proslavery settlers.

Dred Scott Decision

Dred Scott was an enslaved African American that went with his owner to Wisconsin, a free state. When his master died, Scott tried to sue for his freedom. Scott had said that he should be free because of the fact that he had once lived on free soil. He went to court only to be denied his freedom by Chief Justice Taney. This had proved that the Constitution protected slavery. which angered many Northerners.

Who Was Involved?

North

  • President Lincoln
  • Major Robert Anderson
  • supply deliverers

South

  • Governer Francis Pickens
  • President Jefferson Davis
  • General P.G.T Beauregard 

Battle of Fort Sumter

Near Charleston Harbor, South Carolina ~ April 12- April 14, 1861

Who Was Victorious?

In the end, thousands of shots were fired, but no one had perished on either side. The Union garrison had held out for at least 30 hours before surrendering on the 14th of April, and the Confederates had raised their flag over the fort. The Battle of Fort Sumter was won by the South.

Union casualties: 0 - Confederate casulaties: 0

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

The day of his inauguration, President Abraham Lincoln had received a message from the commander of Fort Sumter, Major Robert Anderson, warning that the fort had a shortage of supplies and that the Confederates demanded its surrender. Because of this message, Lincoln responded by sending a message to the governer of South Carolina, Francis Pickens. In his message, Lincoln stated that he would send an unarmed expedition with supplies to Fort Sumter, and vowed they would not attack unless they were fired upon first. The Battle of Fort Sumter officially started after Confederate president Jefferson Davis ordered his forces to attack the fort before supplies delivered by the Union could arrive. General P.G.T Beauregard was the one to order the very first shots starting the Civil War. Unfortunately for the Union, high seas surrounding the island fortification that is Fort Sumter had prevented any relief ships from reaching it in time.

Who Was Involved?

North

  • President Lincoln
  • Brigadier General Irvin McDowell

South

  • Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard
  • General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

First Battle of Bull Run

Near Manassas Juction and the River of Bull Run, Virginia ~ July 21, 1861

Who Was Victorious?

Although disorganized, smaller, and inexperienced, the Confederate forces had won the battle. The Battle of Bull Run had convinced President Lincoln and the rest of the North that the war would be long, as well as costly. A new General, George B. Clellan, was appointed to the Union army to organize and train the troops.

Union casualties: 2,700 - Confederate casualties: 2,000

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

The Battle of First Bull Run was the first major on-land battle in the Civil War. It was fought about five miles from a town named Manassas Junction near a small river called Bull Run, hence the name of the battle. It all began when an inexperienced Confederate force was attacked by a larger, albeit equally inexperienced Union force. President Lincoln wanted to end the war quickly, so he ordered Brigadier General Irvin McDowell to attack Confederate forces  commanded by Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard located in northern Virginia. This would get rid of the bulk of the Confederate army, and would also open up a way to Richmond, the Confederate capital. Rebel forces were driven back by the Union at first. However, the Confederates managed to surge forward with new strength thanks to the courage of General Thomas Jackson, who had stood his ground while fighting the opposing army. This caused the Union troops to retreat back to nearby Washington D.C. The orderly retreat quickly turned into a stampede as the troops collided with the watching civilians in panic.

Who Was Involved?

North

  • Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant

South

  • Brigadier General John Floyd

Battle of Fort Donelson

On Cumberland River, Tennessee - February 11 ~ February 16, 1862

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

Just ten days after capturing Tennessee's Fort Henry, General Ulysses Grant began his assault on the nearby Fort Donelson. The Union needed to open a path into Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama in order to split the Confederacy and impede Southern efforts to transport goods. Troops under command of General John Floyd had attempted but failed to get past General Grant's forces.  When he realized he was trapped, General Floyd asked the Union commander for his terms. General Grant replied that there were no terms, except an unconditional and immediate surrender. This earned him a new nickname of "Unconditional Surrender" Grant.

Who Was Victorious?

The Confederates had surrendered the fort, helping to secure the Tennessee River as well as giving the North one of its first major victories in the war. General Ulysses S. Grant's success had ensured that Kentucky would remain in the Union, and it also helped keep Tennessee open to Union advances in the future.

Union casualties: 2,600 - Confederate casualties: 13,800

Who Was Involved?

North

  • Lieutenant John L. Worden
  • The Moniter

South

  • Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan
  • The Merrimack/The Virginia

Battle of Hampton Roads

Near Hampton Roads, Virginia ~ March 8- March 9, 1862

Who Was Victorious?

Neither the Moniter nor the Virginia could sink the other, so it seemed as if no one had actually won the battle. However, both ships had suffered direct hits, and it wasn't until four hours after the battle between the warships started that a cannon blast from the Virginia struck the other ironclad's pilothouse, temporarily blinding Lieutenant John L. Worden, the ship's captain. This allowed the Confederate ship to escape to Norfolk. The Yankees had succeeded in keeping the Virginia in the harbor, so it never threatened Union ships again. Two months after the Battle of Hampton Roads, the Virginia was trapped in Norfolk by advancing Rebel forces, and its Confederate crew blew up the ship in order to prevent it from falling into the hands of the Union again. 

Union casualties: 500 -

Confederate casualties: 100

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

Also referred to as The Battle of Ironclads, the Battle of Hampton Roads took place off the shores of Virginia and was arguably the most important naval battle of the Civil War. President Lincoln had figured that an effective blockade of Southern ports would avert the Confederacy from exporting its cotton and from importing the supplies needed for the war. The blockade had created critical supply shortages throughout the war, a huge disadvantage for the South. Although the Rebels had less guns and ammunition, as well as goods such as coffee, nails, shoes, and salt, the South wouldn't take the beating without putting up a fight. They salvaged a Yankee warship what Union forces had left behind after Confederate forces seized the naval shipyard in Norfolk, Virginia. They covered the wooden ship with thick iron plates, transforming it into an ironclad, and renamed it after the state of Virginia. Under the command of  Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan, the Virginia attacked a Union squadron of ships, all of them wooden and unable to damage the Confederate ship. Eventually, the Union also sent out an ironclad, the Moniter, which was commanded by Lieutenant John Worden. Both the North and the South used these warships as models to construct more ironclads. Despite the Confederacy warship's change of name, this battle is still often referred to as The Moniter v. The Merrimack.

Who Was Involved?

North

  • General Ulysses S. Grant
  • Major General Don Carlos Buell

South

  • General Albert Sydney Johnston
  • General P.G.T. Beauregard.

Battle of Shiloh

Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee ~ April 6- April 7, 1862

Who Was Victorious?

With the help of General Buell's men, General Grant’s counteroffensive had outnumbered and overpowered the Confederate forces. General Beauregard hadn't known of Buell's arrival and ordered more than one counterattack. After he realized he was greatly outnumbered, he and his troops retreated to Corinth. Whats known as the bloodiest battle in American history at its time had created more than 23,000 casualties in all.

Union casualties: 13,000 - Confederate casualties: 10,700

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

Also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, this ferocious clash was one of the major early fights in the Civil War. It all began when Confederate forces attempted to surprise attack on Union troops under the command of General Grant in southern Tennessee. General Albert Sydney Johnston's soldiers drove the unprepared Union forces out from their camps, and even threatened to General Grant's entire command. By afternoon, the Yankees had assembled a battle line at a sunken road, known as the Hornet's Nest, but Rebel forces surrounded them and had captured, wounded, or killed most. General Don Carlos Buell's reinforcemnt forces started showing up to aid General Grant's troops in the fight. During the first day of battle, General Johnston was mortally wounded, and had to be replaced by General P. G. T. Beauregard. The Battle of Shiloh had lasted two days.

Who Was Involved?

North

  • General John Pope
  • General George B. McClellan

South

  • General Robert E. Lee
  • General Stonewall Jackson
  • General James Longstreet

Second Battle of Bull Run

Near Manassas Juction and River of Bull Run, Virginia ~ August 28- August 30, 1862

Who Was Victorious?

After three long days of battle, the Confederate troops had won. A wave of discouragement and anguish washed over the North due to their loss. President Lincoln had been considering to replace General McClellan by that time, but because of support toward the general from soldiers, he kept General McClellan in command.

Union casualties: 14,000 - Confederate casualties: 8,000

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

As Union troops under the command of John Pope waited for General George McClellan’s Army of the Potomac in order to combine forces, General Robert E. Lee decided to attack first. He had sent half of his army of Northern Virginia to attack the Union supply base at Manassas. Led by Stonewall Jackson, the Confederate soldiers took supplies and burned down the base. They then assembled hidden positions in the woods for attack on Union forces. On the second day of the battle, Pope’s troops clashed with Jackson’s, who had held their ground despite heavy losses on both sides. After the rest of Lee’s army arrived the following day, about 28,000 rebels led by General James Longstreet initiated a counterattack, which forced Pope to retreat to Washington.

Who Was Involved?

North

  • General George McClellan

South

  • General Robert E. Lee

Battle of Antietam

Near Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, Maryland ~ September 17, 1862

Who Was Victorious?

Although the Battle of Antietam was the single bloodiest day of the entire Civil War, the result of the battle was almost inconclusive. The day after the battle, General Lee retreated to Virginia, which allowed the Union troops to claim victory. However, President Lincoln was frustrated with the fact that General McClellan went against orders to pursue the Confederate troops, and replaced him with General Ambrose Burnside.

Union casualties: 12,400 - Confederate casualties: 10,300

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

General McClellan's hesitance and over cautious tendencies had jeopardized the North's chances of winning against General Lee's men. He had waited four days before deciding to attack the Rebel forces, which allowed General Lee to gather most of his forces together along the Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland. On the 17th of September, the two armies clashed. Although General McClellan failed to utlilize his advantage of a larger amount of troops to destroy General Lee’s army, he was able to check the Confederate advancement into the North. By the time the fighting had ended, almost 6,000 soldiers from both sides had been dead or had been dying, while another 17,000 were seriously wounded. Both armies had suffered heavy losses, but neither were destroyed during combat. 

Who Was Involved?

North

  • General Ambrose E. Burnside

South

  • General Robert E. Lee

Battle of Fredericksburg

Fredericksburg, Virginia ~ December 11- December 15, 1862

Who Was Victorious?

The Union was forced to retreat, giving the Confederacy another victory. This loss as well as other failures led to General Burnside’s replacement by Major General Joseph Hooker in January of 1863.

Union casualties: 12,700 - Confederate casualties: 5,300

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

On the 14th of November, General Ambrose E. Burnside, now in command of the Army of the Potomac, sent a squadron to hold down the area of Falmouth, near Fredericksburg. Soon after, the rest of the army had followed. After hearing of this establishment, General Lee then put his troops on the heights behind the town in order to have the higher ground. On December 13, General Burnside, commanded his more than 120,000 troops to cross the Rappahannock River, in order to attack the right and left flanks of General Lee’s 80,000 troop army of Northern Virginia. However, because the advantage of having higher ground, General Lee's men counterattacked the Union assault, and caused them to suffer heavy casualties of nearly 13,000 soldiers. Because of the position of Confederate troops, the Battle of Fredericksburg is also referred to as the Battle of Marye Heights.

 

Who Was Involved?

North

  • General Joseph Hooker

South

  • General Robert E. Lee
  • General Stonewall Jackson

Battle of Chancellorsville

Spotsylvania County, Virginia ~ April 30- May 6, 1863

Who Was Victorious?

After General Lee had once again split his troops and attacked, General Joseph Hooker was forced to withdraw from the intense combat and retreat the Rappahannock River. The Battle of Chancellorsville is still considered to be General Lee’s greatest defensive victory during the Civil War.

Union casualties: 14,000 - Confederate casualties: 10,000

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

Fought near the village of Chancellorsville in Virginia, during this battle General Robert Lee of the South had faced an opposing force almost twice the size of his own army. He had split his troops in half in order to strike General Joseph Hooker, who had been approaching from behind, with a surprise attack. Even though General Hooker had a bigger army, he did not use this advantage, instead opting to take a defensive standpoint. On the 2nd of May, General Jackson took his 30,000 soldiers and followed a long route that brought them against the weak right flank of General Hooker's troops. The attack, started in the late afternoon, was a brilliant success that demolished half of General Hooker's line. However, Jackson, scouting in the dark by the time nightfall came around, was mortally wounded due to friendly fire.

 

Who Was Involved?

North

  • General Ulysses S. Grant

South

  • General John C. Pemberton

Assault on Vicksburg

Vicksburg, Mississippi ~  May 18- July 4, 1863

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

Also called the Vicksburg Campaign or the Siege of Vicksburg, this particular battle was a long, strenuous struggle, lasting about six weeks. In order break apart the Confederacy, General Ulysses S. Grant had to take up a very difficult position, having had to occupy an area with the Mississippi River in front and a swampy delta from behind, with the city of Vicksburg itself up on a hill. In May and June of 1863, he and his armies approached the city, with intention of gaining control of the Mississippi. They had managed to entrap an army under the command of General John C. Pemperton. On the 4th of July, Vicksburg had surrendered due to sieged operations that had been prolonged.

Who Was Victorious?

Desite having more casualties, the Union had won the battle. This success had boosted General Grant's reputation, showing him to be a military genius. The incredible loss of General Pemberton's army gave the Union a strong hold on the Mississippi, effectively splitting the Confederacy in half. Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas were sealed off from the rest of the Confederacy.

Union casualties: 4,800 - Confederate casualties: 3,300

 

 

 

 

Who Was Involved?

North

  • General George Meade

South

  • General Robert E. Lee
  • General George Pickett

Battle of Gettysburg

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania ~  July 1- July 3, 1863

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

The Battle of Gettysburg is considered to be the most important clash of the Civil War. After suffering heavy losses, General Lee began moving north in June with an army of 75,000. In the Union, General Hooker wanted to advance against Richmond, but was odered by President Lincoln to instead attack Lee's army. Hooker failed to do this, and was then replaced by General George G. Meade. Meade had been commanded to find and take down General Lee's forces, as well as defend Washington and Baltimore from Confederate advancement. On the 1st of July, the two armies met near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The battle began when Northern cavalry surprised Southern infantry. Despite being outnumbered, the Union forces fought severly to hold the town before withdrawing to Cemetary Ridge, south of Gettysburg. The second day, the Confederates initiated another assault, attacking the Union troops on both the left and the right. The Union position was saved by a counterattack. On the final day of the battle, Lee had decided to launch an attack with the intent of creating panic within the Union army. This last attack, known as Pickett's Charge, had been led by General George Pickett.

Who Was Victorious?

Barely half of the Confederate soldiers returned from the charge, the Rebels managing to pierce the Union lines but eventually failing at the cost of thousands of Confedetate casualties. Defeated, General Lee was forced to retreat with his destroyed army to Virginia.

Union casualties: 23,000 - Confederate casualties: 28,000

 

Who Was Involved?

North

  • General Ulysses S. Grant

South

  • General Robert E. Lee

Surrender at Appomattox

Appomattox Court House, Virginia ~ April 9, 1865

Who Was Victorious?

Robert E. Lee's surrender to Ulysses S. Grant in Appomattox had finally ended four long years of war. Several days after the meeting of the two commanders in Appomattox Court House, the Confederate forces in North Carolina surrendered as well. Confederate President had been captured in Georgia on the 10th of May. The Civil War was finished, and the Union had won.

What Happened and Why Did It Happen?

On the 3rd of April, 1865, Richmond fell into the hands of Union troops as General Robert Lee led his army in retreat to the West. He had been pursued by General Ulysses Grant and his Army of the Potomoc. Each army had been trying to flank, or prevent being flanked by the opposing force. Lee realized there was little chance of him being successful in his efforts to run, and had been considering surrender. Eventually, on the 7th of April, Grant launched a series of dispatches that lead to a meeting between the two generals. They had agreed to meet on April 9th, at the house of Wilmer McLean in the village of Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Grant's terms of surrender were very generous. The Rebel soldiers were to lay down their arms, but were free to go home. General Grant had allowed them to keep their horses so that they could still plant crops and not struggle through the winter. In addition to this, he had also ordered three days' worth of food to be sent to General Lee's tired and hungry men. 

Ulysses S. Grant

April 27, 1822 - July 23, 1885

"In every battle there comes a time when both sides consider themselves beaten, then he who continues the attack wins."

 

      One of the most influential Americans of the 19th century, Ulysses S. Grant served as U.S. general and commander of the Union armies during the American Civil War, and later became the 18th president of the United States. He was born Hiram Ulysses Grant on April, 27, 1822, in Point Pleasant, Ohio, and was the son of a farmer and a tanner. The "S" in Grant's name didn't actually stand for anything. The initial had been the result of an error from Ohio Congressman Thomas Hamer, who had accidentally wrote Grant's name as "Ulysses S. Grant" when he nominated him to attend West Point Military Academy. Not wanting to be rejected by the school, he had changed his name despite giving his best efforts to correct the record.

      Although Grant went to West Point, he was only an average student, and even received several demerits for tardiness and being unkempt. In 1843, Grant had graduated 21st out of 39. He had distinguished himself during the war with Mexico, but later resigned from the army, initially planning to resign from the military after he served the mandatory four years of duty. During the next few years, Ulysses Grant had failed again and again in farming and business. 

      By the time the Civil War had started, Grant volunteered his services. He experienced trouble being accepted into the Union army, but once he was in, he had impressed President Lincoln with his abilities. He had won the first major victory of the war, and earned himself the nickname of "Unconditional Surrender" Grant in early 1862, becoming the North's new hero. His mastery to plan and make decisions, with the help of Northern advantages and resources, aided in the Union victory of the Civil War.

 

 

Robert E. Lee

January 19, 1807 - October 12, 1870

      An outstanding general and genius strategist, Robert Edward Lee was the heroic leading Confederate general during the American Civil War. He had been born on January 19th, 1807, in Stratford Virginia. Lee was born to a prominent Virginia family, his father serving as governer to the state in which he was born, and even having fought under generals George Washington and Nathaniel Green in the American Revolution. 

      In 1828, Robert Lee graduated from West Point Military Academy at the top of his class, and had been one of six cadets to have graduated without a single demerit. Lee had even wrapped up his studies with perfect scores in artillery, infantry, and cavalry. He had been known for his attention to detail, and in the early part of his career he had served as a military engineer, his duties varying from budgeting to constructing designs for buildings. During the war with Mexico, Lee proved himself as a daring soldier and brilliant tactician. He was showered with praise from his superior, General Winfield Scott, and was held up as a hero. 

     When the Civil War had broken out, Robert E. Lee had been torn on the decision of which side to fight for. President Lincoln had asked him to take command of the Union forces, but Lee did not believe in slavery or secession. He was also against the war altogether. It was when Virginia seceded that Lee had made his choice. His loyalty to his home state caused him to be the South's most brilliant strategist.

 

"It is well that war is so terrible – otherwise we would grow too fond of it."

Women

      During the Civil War, women in both the North and South became teachers and office workers, and they even managed farms. They had also did much to help the soldiers and the armies, like rolling bandages, weaving blankets, and making ammunition. Women had also raised the funds needed for supplies, and collected food, clothing, and medicine for the troops.

      Despite disapproval from doctors who did not want them to witness the horrors of battle, thousands of women served as nurses during the war. Some women acted as spies, gathering information from the enemy to pass on to their side. Harriet Tubman had been a spy for the North. Other women had disguised themselves as men and became soldiers. One of those women was Loretta Janeta Valazquez, who had reportedly fought for the South at the First Battle of Bull Run and at Shiloh.

Soldiers

     The life a Civil War soldier was not a walk in the park. Letters to their families and friends revealed what they saw and how they felt, which almost always either boredom, discomfort, sickness, fear, as well as horror. Most of the time, they lived in camps, which were fairly awful to their health and well-being. Despite camps having had its pleasant moments of songs and stories, letters from home, and baseball games, a soldier's life was often dull, and a routine of drills, bad food, marches, and rain. The many horrors on the battle field caused many man to run away. About 1 of every 11 Union soldiers and 1 of every 8 Confederate soldiers deserted military life because of terror, starvation, or disease.

      Arguably, Rebel soldiers had it worse than Yankees. They had suffered from a lack of food and supplies because of the Union's stategy to cut off some of their resources. At the beginning of the Civil War, men in both the North and the South had rushed to volunteer for the armies. Their enthusiasm for thrills on the battle field did not last.

Life During the Civil War

African Americans

      When the war had begun, more than 3.5 million enslaved people lived in the Confederacy, making up more than 30 percent of the region's whole population as well as the majority of its workforce. Because of the high possiblity of slave rebellion, white Southerners refused to use African Americans as soldiers, for the reason that they would then have weapons. Instead, enslaved workers labored on plantations and in vital iron, salt, and lead mines. Some also worked as nurses in military hospitals and cooks. However, near the end of the war, the Confederate military got desperate, and the Confederate Congress passed a law in 1856 to enlist enslaved people.

      As for the North, at the dawn of war African Americans were not permitted to serve as soldiers, which had disappointed many free African Americans who had volunteered to fight. Although being apart of the army was not a possibility, being apart of the navy was. African Americans who had escaped from slavery helped as guides and spies because of their knowledge of the South.

Results of the Civil War

      The Civil War had been known as the most devastating conflict in American history, causing billions of dollars of damage, most of which in the South, as well as causing more than 600,000 soldiers to perish. The devastation had affected the South's economy, leaving it in a state of collapse. About two thirds of the transportation system was destroyed from combat, with many bridges demolished and miles of railroad twisted and unusable. The Civil War had also generated bitter feelings among defeated Southerners, which lasted for generations.

      After the war had ended, many questions had still remained. No one knew how to bring the Southern states back into the Union, and nobody knew what the status of African Americans in Southern society would be. Americans from both the North and the South alike attempted to anser these questions in the years following that fateful war. This era is known as Reconstruction.

      Despite the destruction of the South's economy and their sense of pride, the war had other consequences as well. The North's success had saved the Union. The federal government was strengthened and was made more powerful than the states, and the war had also freed millions of African Americans. However, the end of slavery did not solve the problems that the newly freed African Americans were to come across.