Galapagos Penguins

 

By Nick Branca

The Galapagos Penguin is an amazing animal.  I chose to research this carnivorous animal for many reasons. One of these reasons is because I thought that it was so odd that there are penguins in warm places and living on islands!!! The only time that I thought I would ever see that was in a dream or some made up book.  I was surprised to learn that there are penguins living in warm tropical places. I don't know about you but I do know that I always thought that penguins lived in very cold places but clearly this was not the truth. I dedicate this book to my mom because she loves to go to new places and loves the Galapagos a lot because her favorite animals live there, turtles!



Dedication and Introduction

Table of Contents

Chapter One......Page 4

 

 

 

Chapter Two.....Page 10

 

 

 

Chapter Three.....Page 15

 

 

 

Glossary......21

 

 

 

Bibliography......22

Chapter One: Early Life

Did you know that there is three critical steps for a penguin to have in it's early life in order to survive in its full lifespan? Well first the penguins have a sequence, then after this they have to think about what they will do about the chick and finally they need to make sure there is good enough conditions. So if all of these things go well the baby penguin will have a very good early life.

 

First they will have to find a mate. Once they find a mate they will stay together for the rest of their lives. Then the pair will then need to find a spot to build the nest by. Some common places were Galapagos Penguins build their nests is in crevices or other depressions in lava rock. They may also dig burrows if they feel that will keep their nest safer.

 

Researchers have also found that these penguins don't have a specific breeding season. Once the penguins do this they will need to make sure that their surrounding area has good enough conditions in order to have a chick. The water temperature has to be under seventy seven degrees fahrenheit. The penguins must also have to find that the sea has a lot of food and other creatures in order to have enough food for the young chick. In addition to this while one penguin goes out to hunt for food the other must stand watch by the nest in case one of the many Galapagos penguins predators are on the prowl.

 

 

Also the sea needs to be flourishing with plenty of food resources. These resources must also have lots of nutrients so the penguins can bring up the chick healthy. It is critical for the chick to be healthy because if it's not it will not be able to survive in the wild. Finally once the female lays the average of two big white eggs. They will need to feed the chicks and keep them warm. Sadly usually only one chick survives. surprisingly though the chicks are usually on their own within sixty to sixty five days of hatching.

 

So in order for a baby penguin to grow up and survive on it's own the parents must go through a sequence, make sure all the conditions are good and then bring them up with the skills of how to hunt, swim and know who their predators are. If the penguins are trained with all these abilities they are certain to have a full life span.

 

Chapter Two: Habitat

Did you know that the Galapagos Penguins is the only penguin that lives in the northern hemisphere? You probably didn't that's because these animals don't have to much of a population and they don't live here in the United States instead they live in the Galapagos. But in order for a penguin to live in a place like this the place must be in good condition, have a supportive living space and have cooperative geological features. These things are very beneficial to a Galapagos Penguins habitat.

First thing that is critical in a penguin's habitat is that they are living in good conditions. The first thing that they have in the galapagos is the equatorial climate. Though this is a very warm climate the penguins have found little tricks on how to get around with the heat. For example they spread their wings out as far as they can when they are on land so as much body heat as possible can get released from their body. In addition to what I said before these penguins live in the northern hemisphere. The only way that these penguins survive in a hot tropical climate like the Galapagos is by something called the Cromwell Current. This is a current that brings up cold water from the depths of the ocean. This is the only reason why the penguins can survive in the Galapagos and not the cold environment were most penguins live. Also these penguins have a bit of a scattered population so they are living at all different kinds of islands.

 

Furthermore, the penguins need to have a nice living space. The living spaces that many penguins live in is really not so great so this is one of the big reasons to why they are going extinct. They live on volcanic islands that that form from cooled lava. These islands are what they nest on and this is their spot for breeding. Here they have nesting spots that could be above or below ground. Some penguins feel that nesting under the ground will help and others feel fine having their nest above ground. One reason why these animals are extinct is because there aren't too many places to have nests. because of this scientists have made artificial nests. In a video that was about their habitat it stated that out of three artificial nests made two of them were occupied with penguins.

 

Finally, if these flightless birds have a good habitat it will have to be in good condition, have a supportive living space and have cooperative geological features. If this is included in the penguins habitat they penguin will be able to function properly and their population may even rise. So if these things are followed the penguins will be able to survive. And why wouldn't anyone want to have an animal go extinct if they could help out.

 

Chapter Three: Threats/Why they are Endangered

Galapagos Penguins numbers are slowly decreasing and we are the only one that can help these exotic creatures from going extinct. The reason for this is because of natural causes, disease and extra predators. If these three things are eliminated in the penguins life there would be a lot more of them and they would be able to thrive in their natural habitat of the Galapagos Islands. This is why and how penguins are slowly disappearing from our world.

 

First there's a problem to the Galapagos Penguins of just natural causes. Something like erosion for example plays a role in why the penguins are going extinct. For example when an island is getting continuously hit by waves everyday the waves will slowly erode small parts of the island eventually this will cause there to be no room on the island for penguins to live on and they will have to find somewhere else to live. Also their is the El Nino weather pattern that is not only changing the lives of penguins but human lives too. For example there was not that much snow this year because of the El Nino weather pattern. And for the penguins the water they swim in is getting warmer rather than colder. Also the penguins usage of nests come into effect while breeding there aren't that many nests in the island so this is hard for penguins to raise their young safely. In addition to this the climate must stay the same. If the climate changes it will throw off the penguins normal way of survival.

 

Another factor that plays into effect in the penguins going extinct is that they are catching many diseases that their bodies aren't used to. The reason for this is because people are bringing pets into where they live and the pets are carrying diseases that are spreading to the penguins. The penguins that are living on the islands are pretty unhealthy anyways and when they get diseases and things it just adds on to their already many problems. So if you are planning to go anywhere where there is animals that are endangered I highly suggest that you do not bring any of your pets from home because you might not realize it but you are actually harming the endangered animals.

 

The factor that plays a big role in the penguins soon extinctual is that there are extra predators that are on the prowl for the penguins. This just adds extra stress on where the penguins build their nests. What are those extra predators believe it or not they are the peoples pets. When people come to vacation on the islands they may bring their cat or dog they pose a threat to the penguins and this makes the penguins have their nests in spots where they would usually not have them in. The pet that cause the most threat is cats. Cats are known for hunting for small birds but penguins are just that more of an easier target because they can't fly. This is just another reason to why people should not bring their pets on vacation with them especially if they are going to the Galapagos.

In conclusion, if the three rules that I stated above start to get better then the penguins population and their health may start to get higher. This will be a huge plus to the penguins survival and their chances of not going extinct. So finally if their is no extra predators, humans don't bring their pets that carry disease and the natural causes start to get better. This would help the penguin population to rise and would be wonderful to see these amazing creatures thrive in the wild.

Adapt- to make suitable to requirements or conditions; adjust or modify fittingly:

Chicks- a young chicken or other bird.

Complex- characterized by a very complicated or involved arrangement of parts, units, etc.:

Courtship- Ethology. behavior in animals that occurs before and during mating,often including elaborate displays.

Crevices- a crack forming an opening; cleft; rift; fissure.

Cromwell Current- Equatorial Countercurrent.

Depressions- a depressed or sunken place or part; an area lower than the surrounding surface.

El Nino- a warm ocean current of variable intensity that develops after late December along the coast of Ecuador and Peru and sometimes causes catastrophic weather conditions.

Endemic- natural to or characteristic of a specific people or place; native;indigenous:

Equatorial- of, relating to, or near an equator, especially the equator of the earth

Fahrenheit- noting, pertaining to, or measured according to a temperature scale(Fahrenheit scale) in which 32° represents the ice point and 212°the steam point. Symbol: F.

Female- a person bearing two X chromosomes in the cell nuclei and normally having a vagina, a uterus and ovaries, and developing at puberty a relatively rounded body and enlarged breasts, and retaining a beardless face; a girl or woman.

Galapagos- islands named for the tortoises (Spanish galapagos) who live there;discovered by Europeans in 1535.

Hemisphere- (often initial capital letter) half of the terrestrial globe or celestial sphere, especially one of the halves into which the earth is divided.

Incubated- to sit upon (eggs) for the purpose of hatching

Mortalities- the state or condition of being subject to death; mortal character,nature, or existence.

Rituals- an established or prescribed procedure for a religious or other rite.

 

Glossary

“Galápagos_Penguin_(Spheniscus_mendiculus),_Galápagos_Islands,_Ecuador.Jpg (1024×759).” Web. 10 Mar. 2016.
“GaláPagos Penguin | Species | WWF.” World Wildlife Fund. Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
A-Z-Animals.com. “A-Z Animals - Animal Facts, Information, Pictures, Videos, Resources And Links.” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Galápagos_Penguin_(Spheniscus_mendiculus),_Galápagos_Islands,_Ecuador.Jpg (1024×759).” Web. 10 Mar. 2016.
“GaláPagos Penguin | Species | WWF.” World Wildlife Fund. Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
A-Z-Animals.com. “A-Z Animals - Animal Facts, Information, Pictures, Videos, Resources And Links.” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus Mendiculus) - BirdLife Species Factsheet.” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus Mendiculus) - BirdLife Species Factsheet.” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin: ≪i≫Spheniscus Mendiculus≪/i≫” Web. 3 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin: ≪i≫Spheniscus Mendiculus≪/i≫” Web. 7 Mar. 2016.
A-Z-Animals.com. “Picture 1 Of 7 - Pictures and Images - Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus Mendiculus) - Animals - A-Z Animals - Animal Facts, Information, Pictures, Videos, Resources and Links.” Web. 7 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin: ≪i≫Spheniscus Mendiculus≪/i≫” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin Videos, Photos and Facts - Spheniscus Mendiculus | ARKive.” ARKive. Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin: ≪i≫Spheniscus Mendiculus≪/i≫” Web. 3 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin: ≪i≫Spheniscus Mendiculus≪/i≫” Web. 7 Mar. 2016.
A-Z-Animals.com. “Picture 1 Of 7 - Pictures and Images - Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus Mendiculus) - Animals - A-Z Animals - Animal Facts, Information, Pictures, Videos, Resources and Links.” Web. 7 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin: ≪i≫Spheniscus Mendiculus≪/i≫” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin Videos, Photos and Facts - Spheniscus Mendiculus | ARKive.” ARKive. Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguins, Spheniscus Mendiculus.” MarineBio.org. Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguins, Spheniscus Mendiculus.” MarineBio.org. Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin.” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Galapagos Penguin.” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Penguins: Galapagos Penguins - Spheniscus Mendiculus.” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Penguins: Galapagos Penguins - Spheniscus Mendiculus.” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Spheniscus Mendiculus (Galapagos Penguin, GaláPagos Penguin).” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.
“Spheniscus Mendiculus (Galapagos Penguin, GaláPagos Penguin).” Web. 23 Mar. 2016.

Bibliography