A brief overview of Greece.

Greece: Amazing Things

By: Anastasia M.

In this country of wonder, you could recite a speech in English using only words based on this language.The world's most useful inventions were born here.This land of many islands, where the sun shines all year 'round.The place where there  are villages so remote, donkey travel is still widely used. The place of high mountains, low valleys, sandy shores and clear, tranquil, turquoise waters. Where could this palace of paradise, as beatuiful as the moring sun possibly be? Greece, of course! Here, people have birthed one of the most ancient & most developed civilizations in  history. When you flip this page, you will learn about this country, this country of wonder, which bears the name of Greece. Χαίρετε Ελλάδα (All Hail Greece! (Herete Elatha  (Hard th)))!

 

Introduction

Greece has a wide & varied geography, from mountains to oceans.

 

 

The mainland, otherwise known as Greece Proper, has a mountainous heartland, with flatter lands, beaches, & ports on the exterior. Most of the islands are like Greece Proper, with a mountainous heartland & beaches on the exterior. In area, Greece is 52 000 miles sq.  ( 83 685 km sq.) , and has 12 million people currently in residence. The capital is Athens, with the Euro as its currency. The Prime Minister, Alexis Tsipras, has the real power, and the President, Prokopis Pavlopoulos, is just a political figurehead. Greece has many regions, and has a rich geography.

 

The Geography of Greece

 

 

 

 

There are 10 regions of Greece. The southernmost region is the Peloponnese. North of the Peloponnese is Central Greece. North of Central Greece is Thessaly. West of Thessaly is Epiros. North of Thessaly is Macedonia. East of Macedonia is Thrace. In the Aegean Sea, there a group of  islands called the Cyclades. South of  the Cyclades, Crete lies, the largest  island of them all. Southeast of the Cyclades are the Dodekanisa (The 12 islands). In the Ionian Sea, off the coast of Epiros, lies the Eftanisa (The 7 islands).

 

 

The Regions of Greece

 

Crete is the most populous of all the regions in Greece. Of all the islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Crete is the 5th largest. It separates the Aegean Sea from the Libyan Sea. Its capital, and,coincidentally, its largest city, is Heraklion.

 

Crete is 160 mi (260 km) from east to west, and is 37 mi (60 km) at its widest point, while being 7.5 mi (12 km) at its narrowest point. Crete is 3 219 mi sq.  ( 8 336 km sq.), and its coastline is 650 mi (1 o46 km). To the north, there is the Sea of Crete, to the south, the Libyan Sea, to the West, it brushes the Myrtoan Sea, and to the East,the Karpathian Sea. Crete is very mountainous, with a tall mountain range from west to east.

Crete

The Lefka Ori Mountain Range, otherwise known as the White Mountains, are 8 045 ft ( 2 452 m), the Dikti Mountains, 7 047 ft ( 1 777 m), & Thripti, where Zeus was allegedly born, at  4 885 ft ( 1 489 m). The tallest  mountain in Crete is Mt. Ida, reaching  a height of 8 057 ft (2 456 m). These mountains then form valleys, such as the Amari Valley; plentiful plateaus, such as the Lasithi Plateau,  Omalos & Nikos,and many caves, such as Idaion.

 

Crete is also blessed with abundant water in the forms of gorges, lakes, and rivers.Some gorges include the Samaria Gorge, the Imbros Gorge, Kourtaliotiko Gorge, Ha Gorge,  the Gorge of the  dead, and Richtis Gorge (and waterfall). The rivers of Crete are many, but a small sampling is the Ieropotamos River, the Koiliaris, the Anadpodiris, the Giofyros, & Megas Potamos. In Crete, there are only 2 freshwater lakes: Lake Kournas & Lake Aygia. Lake Voulismeni was freshwater, but is now connected to a sea. 3 lakes were man made: The  Lake of Aposelemis dam, the Lake of Potamos dam, & the Lake of  Mpraamicha - you guessed it!- dam.

http://www.greeka.com/photos/crete/48-fodele-b.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

Crete (Continued) 

The Cyclades are about 220 islands, most of them being uninhabited by humans, small and desolate. The major ones are Amorgos, Anafi, Andros, Antiparos, Delos, Eschati, Ios, Kimolos, Kythnos, Milos, Mykonos, Naxos, Paros, Folegandros, Serifos, Sikinos, Tinos, and Santorini, officially known as Thira. The islands are the peaks of a submerged mountain range, except for Santorini and Milos, which are the peaks of submerged dormant volcanoes. The climate is often dry and mild, but all the islands save for milos have infertile soil. The Cyclades make their living off of wine, fruit, wheat, olive oil and tobacco. Unfortunately, the Cyclades are in the path of the Meltemi Wind, which can reach up to Force 7 on the Beaufort Scale. This forceful wind normally starts around late June, and the season ends in September.

http://www.greeka.com/photos/cyclades/17-paros-glyfades-b.jpg

 

The Cyclades

 

Greece

Greece is a beautiful country in southeastern Europe. It has 2 mainland peninsulas and  an unmeasurable amount of islands within the Aegean Sea and the Ionian Sea. Because of its bountiful history, Greece is often referred to as the birthplace of Western civilization. Athens, its capital, has many ancient landmarks including, but not limited to, the 5th-century-B.C. Acropolis and Parthenon. Greece is also known for its beautiful beaches, from the black, volcanic  sands of Santorini to the  luxurious resorts of Mykonos.

F.Y.R.O.M

F.Y.R.O.M, otherwise known as Macedonia, is a landlocked Balkan nation filled with mountains, lakes and ancient towns of  Ottoman and European architecture. The capital, Skopje, is known for its sprawling Old Bazaar quarter and historic buildings-turned-museums, including the National Gallery of Macedonia, housed in a 15th-century Turkish bath complex. The southern city Ohrid, on a lake of the same name, has an astounding  medieval townscape and mesmerizing hilltop castle.

Macedonia has a population of 2.107 million (as of 2013) the currency is the Macedonian denar, and the official language is Macedonian.

 

Surrounding Countries

 

 

Albania

 

Albania, on the Balkan Peninsula, is a small country bordered by the  Adriatic Sea and the  Ionian Sea, with an interior crossed by the Albanian Alps. Along its southern coast, the Albania Riviera is known for its villages, beach resorts and nightlife. With history stretching back to long, long ago, Albania is also rich in castles and archaeological sites. Its capital is Tirana, its currency is the Albanian lek, with a population of 2.774 million (as of 2013) and the official language is Albanian.

 

Bulgaria

Bulgaria is a Balkan nation encircling the Black Sea, with abundant rivers, including the Danube, and a mountainous interior. Being a cultural melting pot of Greek, Slavic, Ottoman and Persian influences, it has a deep heritage including the arts of  traditional dance, music, costumes and crafts.In the shadow of the majestic Vitosha mountain is its capital, Sofia,  which dates back to the 5th century B.C.

Bulgaria’s currency is the Bulgarian lev, it’s population is 7.265 million (as of 2013) and its  official language is Bulgarian.

 

 

 

Surrounding Countries

 

 

 

 

Turkey

Turkey is a nation in between  eastern Europe and western Asia, culturally connected to the ancient Greek, Persian, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman empires. Cosmopolitan Istanbul, on the Bosphorus Strait, is home to the internationally famous  Hagia Sophia, also known as Saint Sophia, with soaring dome and mosaics; the massive Blue Mosque; and the Topkapı Palace, former home of  Ottoman sultans. Today, Ankara is Turkey’s capital. The president of Turkey is President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. It has a population of 74.93 million (as of 2013), and its  official language is Turkish.

 

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/europe/greece/map/big.GIF

 

Part of Greece’s history  an ancient country has to involve the construction of great and wondrous structures, and today, over 2000 years later, tourists come to admire the works of long ago.

     One of the most famous monuments in Greece is the Acropolis. It was constructed during the Golden Age of Athens, around the mid 5th century BC. The Acropolis consists of many buildings, including the Propylaea, the Erechtheion, the Temple of Nike, and the Parthenon. Built on the ruins of previous temples, the Acropolis  consists of only the finest Pentelic Marble and by the best marble craftsmen of the time. Over the centuries, the Acropolis got largely destroyed by wars. The biggest damage done was in 1687 by a Venetian gun, and in 1816 when Lord Elgin removed the majority of the Parthenon friezes, and sold it to the British Museum.

 

      The Acropolis was a fortress in the Neolithic era. In Mycenaean times, Acropolis Hill became a sacred place for the worship of the Greek godess Pallas Athena. Legend tells us Acropolis Hill was a province reserved for the gods, so nothing was allowed to be born or die there. In 480 BC, the Persians annihilated the Acropolis during the Battle of Salamina. Pericles, the founder of democracy, rebuilt the temple that still stands today. Later, during the Byzantine times, the Parthenon became a Christian church dedicated to Saint Sophia. In 1205 AD, the hill became a fortress and home for the Franks. During the Frankish occupation, the Parthenon was a Catholic Church, called Our Lady of Athens. In the 15th century,the Ottomans turned the Parthenon into  another center of religious worship, this time a mosque.

 

 

 

Greece is known for many things, but one that draws visitors from far and wide are its monuments.

The Acropolis

at Athens

Monuments

The Parthenon is located on top of Acropolis Hill. It was dedicated to Pallas Athena, the patron goddess of Athens (The name? See?  Athena → Athens?). It was created between 447 BC - 432 BC,by the architect Iktinos and Kallikrates,overseen by the famous sculptor Phidias, who would later go on to create the World Wonder the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. The Parthenon was decorated with Doric metopes and Ionic friezes. The friezes depict mythical scenes from Greek mythology, such as the battle between the Gods and the Giants, the Lapith battle with the barbarian centaurs, the Greek war with the Amazons, the Athenian victory over the Trojans, and the main frieze displays one of the most sacred festival in Athens, the Panathenaea.

 

The Erechtheion is located on the most sacred part of the holy hill (holiest of the holiest). The side of the Erechtheion is on was where the ceremonies of Athena and Poseidon took place. The temple was part of Pericles’ new design. The temple is of Ionic architecture, with three different  parts: the main temple, the north porch, and the south porch. The northern porch consists of six “columns” that lead to the Temenos of Pandrossos, where olive trees, Athena’s sacred symbol, grew. The northern porch was renowned for its “columns”, which weren’t really columns at all, as regular columns were replaced by the Caryatids, the six  marble women who supported the roof.
Athens Acropolis

 

On the slopes of Mount Parnassus, the Oracle of Delphi, through which Apollo speaks through, lies. Pilgrims from all over the Mediterranean Basin would journey to the Oracle to have their fate told(Why anyone would do this, I’m unsure, as most of the Oracle’s prophecies usually spelled doom and despair).

Mythology tells us Apollo came to Delphi in the guise of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests and priestesses on his back. Others argue Apollo walked to Delphi to gather laurel, his sacred symbol. Because of this, the winners of the Pythian Games, held in honor of Apollo, were awarded a sacred wreath of these leaves. A sacred spring flowed into Delphi,  then vanished, leaving unusual mists that were rumored to help the Oracle recite her prophecies. One of the most important temples in Delphi  was the temple of Phoebus Apollo. It was the spot on which  the Pythian Games were held.

http://www.greeka.com/photos/greece/58-delphi-01-delfoi-archealogical-sit-b.jpg

 

DElphi

     Knossos, about 3 miles from Heraklion, Knossos is one of the most famous spots in Crete. When found in the early 20th century, archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans discovered it nearly intact, buried under a blanket of ashes. Crazily enough, Knossos retained most of its original colors and murals. The palace itself is over one sq. mi,  and is much larger than all other Minoan palatial renderings. Like the Acropolis, Knossos was originaly built  around 2 000 BC, and was destroyed by an earthquake, then rebuilt in 1 700 BC.

      Knossos was an ingenious build. It had over 1 300 rooms, which were connected to each other. Knossos also had four wings, each with a seperate entrance and garden. Not only that, but the palace had systems to recive liquid, to remove rain water and to dispose of waste water.

      Knossos' designs were exemplary. It had striking red columns, which were unlike other Greek columns, as regular columns were wider at the bottom and thinner at the top, but the Minoan columns were thinner at the bottom and wider at the top. Not only that, but the columns rested on stone bases, and had rounded, pillow shaped capital. Knossos was heavily decorated  with Frescoes,  but little of Knossos' frescoes remain. The artist Piet de Jong has taken on the responsibility of restoring and recreating these wonderful buon-frescoes. The throne room, too, is phenomenal. It contains an alabaster throne in the north wall, with gypsym benches on the other 3 walls, along with a lustral basin used for cerimonial purification across from the throne.

Knossos

What draws visitors here are the walls, made of elaphantine boulders. Legend tells us Cyclops, one eyed creatures of myth, with their immense strength, built these walls, as no human has the strength! Clearly, the hammer was scarcely used, and therfore the boulders fit roughly together. To patch the cracks, Mycenaean builders filled the cracks with smaller limestone rocks.                     Mycenae  

 

Cyclopean Walls

Akrotiri is a Minoan village on the south side of Santorini, and is second only to Knossos in terms of preservation. Ancient Akrotiri was a center of trade. It had 2 story houses,public buildings, storehouses, and even a sewage system! Because the town was buried in volcanic ash, experts believe the same volcano that buried Knossos buried Akrotiri. Clearly, Akrotiri inhabitants had time to leave and gather their belongings, as no bodies were found. Part of the reason may have been the earthquakes 10 days before the eruption. All in all, Akrotiri was a very developed settlement for its time.

Santorini Akrotiri Minoan Site

 

Akrotiri

 

           Callicrates and Ictinus helped build the Parthenon. Mnesicles designed the Propalayea. All of these men built wonders, wonders that still stand today.

         Callicrates and Ictinus worked together alot. Not only did they both work on the Parthenon, they designed the Temple of Nike. Callicrates was an architect in 500 BC. With Ictinus, he built the Parthenon from 447 - 432 BC, and designed the Temple of Nike in about 427 BC. Ictinus was an architect in the second half of the 6th  century BC. Ictinus is widely regarded as one of the greatest architects of Ancient Greece. Not only designing the Parthenon and the Temple of Nike, Ictinus also worked on the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae, and is rumored to have rebuilt the Telesterion at Eeusis.

                Mnesicles, another famous 6th century BC architect, built the Propelayea, a monumental entrance. Mnesicles propelayea still stands today.

Famous Architects &

What They Built

Ancient Greek Architecture is some of the best in the world.Some modern day buildings, such as the Capital Building were modeled off Ancient Greek buildings.

Architecture

          Greek Architecture started in the Agean Sea.The best work was done from 700 BC to 146 BC. Some early Minoan architecture remains, such as the Lion's Gate in Mycenae, ancient Mycean palaces, and Tiryns.

         

              The Dorians cultivated the Doric Order so quickly between 1 000 BC and 600 BC, certain it was to be a order of architecture. However, before the familiar marble temples we see today, it was likely there were early forms in which temples were made out of bricks, sticks and mud. In fact the Heraeum at Olympia was like that for some time!

 Orgins of Architecture

Greek Architecture has 3 distinct styles, or orders. From earliest to latest, they are the Doric Order, the Ionic Order, and the Corinthian Order.The Doric Order is the oldest order. The Doric Order wasthe most used form of architecture in Ancient Greece. Many people believe the Doric Order had roots in wood, as many small details in this order resemble carpentry. In the 5th century, many famous Doric Order buildings were built, such as the Propylaea in Athens.

Fun Fact!

Interestingly enough, the Doric columns had no base, so to compensate, the shaft was massive.

Orders of Architecture 

The Doric Order was not the only order there is!! Far away from Greece Proper, in the Greek colonies in Asia Minor, a new order was born. It was called the Ionic Order. For starters, the Ionic Order was more refined, as it was slender and exquisitely carved. Later, in 500 BC, the Ionic order challenged the simple, sturdy Doric Order in Greece Proper. Still, the best example of the Ionic order resides in Asia Minor, in the ancient city of Miletus. Unfortunately,  the only Ionic temple of major importance in Greece Proper is the Erechtheum at Athens.

 

              The Corinthian Order is by far the most ornate, and least used, of all the Greek orders. The Corinthian columns are even more slender than those of the Ionic order. The capital has distinct ornamentation, which is the easiest way to tell it apart. Though the Greeks didn't use this order often, it was one of the most prominent styles of Roman architecture.

From novels to comic books, Greek mythology is still present in society today. Below is a overview of the 14 main gods.

Poseidon is the god of the sea.  He is the child of the Titans Kronos and Rhea. Poseidon has both a throne on Mount Olympus and a glorious undersea palace, in which he lives with his wife, Amphrite, and their son, Triton. Like most Greek gods, he had lots of love affairs with mortal women. His primary weapon was a giant trident powerful enough to cause earthquakes and tsunamis. Poseidon created horses out of sea foam, and he could destroy cities and sink whole fleets of ships (Greeks totaly wanted to get on his bad side, right? Wink, wink.)

            Zeus was the king of the gods. He was married to Hera. He is the god of the sky, eagles, flying, air, and evergreen trees.He is the youngest of the 6 children of Kronos (Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, Hades & Hestia). In Roman mythology, Zeus was known as Jupiter (Yes, like the planet. Where do you think the name 'Jupiter' came from?).When Zeus goes to war, he hurls lightning bolts. He also causes storms. While Zeus might seem magestic,  he is a less than stellar father figure. His symbols are the thunderbolt, a set of scales, eagles, and the evergreen tree.

Mythology

 

Poseidon

Zeus

Hades was the Greek  lord of the underworld. He was often portrayed as a dismal and gloomy figure. His wife was Persephone (Per-se(short e)-phony), whom he kidnapped, so she stays with him in winter.As lore tells us, Demeter, Persephone's mother, is forlorn that here daughter will be taken, so fall is created. When her daughter goes to Hades, she is lugubrious that her daughter is down there, so we have winter. Hades does have love affairs, but way less than the other Olympians. His symbols are the screech owl, bones, riches, the poplar tree and the Helm of Invisibility, which allows the wearer to go undetected by the 5 senses.

          Hera was the godess of marrige, motherhood, and family. She was a child of Kronos and Rhea. She is her brother's, Zeus',second wife. She had four children with Zeus: Eilithyia, the godess of childbirth; Ares the god of war, Hebe, the godess of youth; and Hephtasus, the god of blacksmiths and fire. Hera's sacred symbols are the peackok, the lioness, and the cow (a motherly  animal).

 

        Athena was the Greek godess of battle strategy, wisdom, skill, and useful crafts. She was the child of Zeus and Metis, Zeus' first wife. As Zeus had swallowed Metis, Metis gave birth inside of Zeus' head, and raised Athena there. Because of this, Athena popped out of Zeus' head, fully clothed, in the garb of a warrior. She taught humans crafts such as weaving, sewing, farming, and metalworking/ blacksmithing. Her symbols are the owl (Exept for the Screech owl), the olive branch, and the Ageis.

Hera

Athena

Hades

The water mill was originally callled the Perachora Wheel. Experts believe its creator was most likly Philo of Byzantium. The odometer is a set of tools used for measuring distances. Historians dispute over who made it. Possible creators are Heron of Alexandria and the mathimatical genius, Archimendes. It was used to place milestones. Both the water mill & the odometer are still used today.

             Philosophy had been in place since before the Greeks came along, but the Greeks turned it into more than just basing everything on the gods. They based it on reason and observation. When the Greeks philosophized, they philosophized about understanding the world around them. That is why the Greeks were credited with philosophy.

1- The Water Mill &        2- The Odometer

The Greeks invented a plethora of useful items.Here is a small selection of their most meaningful inventions.

3- Philosophy

Inventions

         Central heating began in the Temple of Ephesus, where the temple was kept warm by using flues underneath the floor to circulate the heat of the fire. The alarm clock was created by Ctesibus. Ctesibus rigged an elaborate system that dropped pebbles onto a gong at certian intervals. Plato also created an alarm clock by using pebbles and water. Both the alarm clock and central heating are ued today, albeit with many changes.

4- Central Heating &

 5- The Alarm Clock

Macedonia has wheat, tobbaco,cattle & grapes. Crete has wheat, cattle, goats, sheep, and olives. Thrace produces grapes. Salonika Plain has fruits, grain, cotton, goats, & sheep. Central Pindus has sheep, goats, coton, lemons, & olives. Thessaly has wheat, fruits, & olives. Southeastern Uplands has goats, wheat, & grapes. The Pelponnese has vegtables, barley, wheat, & oats. The Agean Islands have seafood such as sea urchins, squid, fish, lobsters, and sea snails. They also produce grapes, tobbaco, vegtables, & wheat. The Ionian Islands have grapes, barley, wheat and oats.

    Foods in the Regions of Greece

Greece has an amazing cusine.

Food

      The Ancient Greek diet varied, as it consisted on what was plentiful around them. For instance, if you lived on a small island, you might eat seaweed and sea urchins for breakfeast, but if you lived on the border between Macedonia, Epiros, and Thessaly, you might have olives for breakfast. However, the majority of Greece had bread dipped in wine for breakfast. Lunch was again bread dipped in wine, but this time with olives, cheese, or desiccated fish  Supper had the most food. It consisted of vegtables, fruit, fish, and occasionaly,  honey cakes.

 Ancient Greeks had 3 to 4 meals a day. They had breakfast, a quick lunch,  and sometimes a small lunch-dinner before the main meal, dinner.

       

            They ate with their hands, and had bread as a napkin and to sop up the meal.  Greeks had a lot of grain and seafood in their diet. Ancient Greeks at at high tables for regular dining, and low tables for banquets. Sometimes, pieces of bread were used as a plate, but normally, terracotta bowls were used as plates. As ancient Greeks were without utensils, they ate with their hands. Wine was the main drink, when watered down, as drinking wine straight was considered barbaric. Milk was also considered barbaric. Water was another possible drink. Fish was the main food. Meat was rarely eaten, as it was expensive.

Eating Customs of Ancient Greeks

Foods in Ancient Greece 

Loukoumades

 

Prep Time: 135 minutes
Cook Time:15 minutes
Total Time: 150 minutes
Yield: About 40 pieces



Ingredients
  • 3 cups all-purpose flour

  • 1 pkg. (1/4 oz) dry yeast

  • 1/2 tsp. baking powder

  • 1/2 tsp. baking soda

  • 1/2 tsp. sugar

  • 1/2 tsp. salt

  • 1 tsp. whiskey or brandy

  • 1-1/2 cups lukewarm water

  • 1/2 cup lukewarm water

  • 2 cups canola or corn oil

  • Ground cinnamon and walnuts for serving

  • For the syrup:

  • 2 cups sugar

  • 1 stick cinnamon

  • 1-cup water

  • 1/2 cup honey





Preparation
  1. Dissolve the yeast in the 1/2 cup lukewarm water and set aside.

  2. In a medium to large mixing bowl, add the flour, baking powder, baking soda, sugar, and salt. Mix well to combine.

  3. Add the dissolved yeast, whiskey, and 1-1/2 cups water to the dry ingredients.

  4. Using an electric hand mixer, mix the batter for 3 minutes on medium high speed making sure that there are no lumps in the batter.

  5. Cover the batter with plastic wrap and set aside in a warm place for about two hours to rise.

  6. Prepare the syrup while the batter is rising. Add the sugar, cinnamon stick, water and honey to a saucepan.

  7. Boil for 5 minutes until the sugar is completely dissolved. Keep warm.

  8. When the batter is about double in size, heat the 2 cups oil in a saucepan or deep frying pan until very hot but not smoking.

  9. Using two spoons, carefully drop about a teaspoon full of batter for each puff into the hot oil. Turn the puffs using a slotted spoon and fry until golden brown on each side. Remove the puffs to a plate lined with paper toweling to absorb excess oil.

  10. Dip the hot puffs in the syrup and then sprinkle with cinnamon, ground walnuts or even with confectioners sugar. Serve immediately.





kalimera = good morning - καλημέρα. Used both when coming to and going away from a place.

kalispera = good afternoon - καλησπέρα. Used only when coming to a place or meeting someone in the evening or at night.

kalinihta = good night - καληνύχτα. Used only as a goodbye greeting in the evening or at night.

herete (e as in egg) = hello - χαίρετε, used between 10:00 and 14:00

yassou = hello or goodbye - γειά σου (greeting to one person or a friend)

yassas = hello or goodbye - γειά σας (greeting to more persons or a more formal and polite way to greet an unknown person)

adio = goodbye - αντίο

Decimals: in Greek, the use of commas and periods is different than in English.

Period is used to separate the thousands, while the comma is used as the decimal point.

So in Greek we write:

1.000 (one thousand - hilia - χίλια)

1,5% (one and a half percent - ena misi tois ekato - ενάμισi τοις εκατό, or ενα κόμμα πέντε τοις εκατό - ena comma pente tois ekato - one point five precent).

The easy way to to read a number with decimal, is to read the numbers and pronounce the word comma (which is a Greek word anyway) between the two parts of the number.

 

1 = ena - ένα

2 = dio - δύο

3 = tria - τρία

4= tessera - τέσσερα

5 = pente - πέντε

6 = eksi - έξι

7 = efta - εφτά

8 = okto - οκτώ

9 = enia - εννιά

10 = deka - δέκα

11 = endeka - έντεκα

12 = dodeka - δώδεκα

100 is ekato - εκατό

1.000 is hilia (pronounced heeleea) - χίλια

1.000.000 is ena ekatommyrio (pronounced ena ekatomeereeo) - ένα εκατομμύριο

 

Ellatha = Greece - Ελλάδα

Ellinas = Greek (man) - Ελληνας

Ellinitha = Greek (woman) - Ελληνίδα

Athina = Athens - Αθήνα

Kriti = Crete - Κρήτη

kritikos = Cretan man - Κρητικός

kritikia = Cretan woman - Κρητικιά

Iraklio = Heraklion - Ηράκλειο

Hania = Chania - Χανιά

Rethimno = Rethymnon - Ρέθυμνο

Ayios Nikolaos = Agios Nikolaos - Αγιος Νικόλαος

Sitia = Sitia - Σητεία

Knossos = Knossos - Κνωσός

Phaistos = Phaistos - Φαιστός

Samaria = Samaria (Gorge) - Σαμαριά. 

aspro = white - άσπρο

lefko = white - λευκό

mavro = black - μαύρο

gri = grey - γκρι

kokkino = red - κόκκινο

ble = blue - μπλε

kitrino = yellow - κίτρινο

prassino = green - πράσινο

kafe = brown - καφέ

mov = purple - μωβ

galazio = light blue - γαλάζιο

 

Alvania = Albania - Αλβανία

Ameriki = USA - ΗΠΑ

Anglia = England - Αγγλία

Finlanthia = Finland - Φινλανδία

Gallia = France - Γαλλία

Iaponia = Japan - Ιαπωνία

Ispania = Spain - Ισπανία

Italia = Italy - Ιταλία

Kanathas = Canada - Καναδάς

Kina = China - Κίνα

Norviyia = Norway - Νορβηγία

Ollanthia = Holland - Ολλανδία

Polonia = Polland - Πολωνία

Rossia = Russia - Ρωσία

Souithia = Sweden - Σουηδία

Thania = Denmark - Δανία

Tourkia = Turkey - Τουρκία

Velyio = Belgium - Βέλγιο

Voulgaria = Bulgaria - Βουλγαρία

Yermania = Germany - Γερμανία

Language

Words & Phrases

The Greek language is based off of Ancient Greek, which is based off of Phonecian. Here is a comparison of Phonecian to Ancient Greek to Modern Greek. Only capital letters were included.

Orgins

           The Greeks came in contact with the Phonecian traders, and were exposed to their alphabet. Cultral diffusion took place. The Greeks adopted the Phonecian alphabet, then modified it a bit. The constatants the Greeks didn't need (The  Phonecian alphabet is entirely constatants) they changed to vowels. The Greeks also modified the letters slightly. Modern Greek and Ancient Greek have similar apperances. However, Modern Greek, like most modern languages, has lowercase letters. Lowercase was invented in AD because they were easier to use and took up less space in books.

Orgins (Continued)

        The Kalamatiano (Kalamatiano) is a very famous dance it is danced in a circle, with the dancers holding hands. As with all, Greek dances, the left hand is on top. It is danced everywhere. It goes: 1- step foward with the right foot; 2- left foot crosses in front of the right, 3-7 alternating steps foward, starting with the right foot; 8-11 alternating steps back, starting with the left foot; then 12,one step foward with the left foot; then repeat the dance until song ends.

                  The Zeibeckio is a well-known Greek dance. It doesn't have much of a structure, and is just danced to the music. It is a slow dance. Zeibeckio originates from the  Zeibeck warriors of Antolia (Get it? Zeibeck ⟶ Zeibeckio?).

Kalamatiano

Traditional Dance

Zeibeckio

Geece's history is very mature, and has its ups & downs.

The Stone Age

  

                 There have been people in Greece for hundereds of thousands of years. In Greece, researchers have found a skull that is before inbetween the genus Homo Erectus and the genus Homo Neanderthalenisis. The Greek civilization  started to develop in the Aegean, where  the earliest records of burial and commerce where found, sometime around 7 250BC, in the Franchthi cave in the Argolid. Lots of stone tools were found in nowaday   Macedonia, Pelponesse, and Thessaly, which shows that there were ancient communities in Greece Proper. In Thessaly, Neolithic communities such as  Sesklo and Dimini show developed activities, such as fortifications, along with prostas houses, otherwise known as "megaron" houses.  

 

The Bronze Age of Greece

             The Bronze Age of Greece lasted roughly 3 000 years. Three main groups lived during this time. They were the first "true" Greeks; the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Cycladic civilization in the Cyclades, and the Helladic civilization in the mainland. The Myceans, a subset of the Minoans, outlasted all the other civilizations. The Mycean civilization was important because when it colapsed, it sent Greece plummeting in to the Dark Ages.

History

               In the Dark Ages, all the major settlements, EXCEPT for Athens, were abandonded. The Greeks turned into nomads, and went back in time, in terms of development. The only good thing about this is that the harsh Mycean social and economic styles were forgotten. 

Dark Ages

Conclusion

      I hope you learned something interesting about my country, Greece. It is wonderful, and filled with fun & exiting surprises.In Greece, there are many wrapped presents, just waiting to be unwrapped.  Here are some unwrapped secrets that might still be interesting!

         Did You Know... 

... All 7 wonders of the world were once in the Macedonian Empire under Alexander the Great, and that Macedonia is a part of nowaday Greece(You should have known the last part!)?

...When the Greeks fell into the Dark Ages, the writing they forgot was called Linear B,  and when they became literate again, the writing they learned was completely different?

... That Greece is the BEST COUNTRY EVER???!!!!!!!!!!!!! (No favoritisim there)

 

 

Rhea-   The mother of the gods Queen of the Titans, and sister wife of Kronos

 

 Kronos- King of the Titans, evil tyrant, killed father, Ouranous (The Cosmos, for power

Glossary

 

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"Ancient Greek Cuisine." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek_cuisine>.

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 "Best Historical Monuments in Greece - Greeka.com." Greeka. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.greeka.com/greece-                                                                    history/monuments/>.

 "Food in Ancient Greece." Food in Ancient Greece. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://historylink101.com/2/greece3/food.htm>.

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"Google." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016. <https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-                              8#newwindow=1&safe=strict&q=Albania>.

"Google." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016. <https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-                                   8#newwindow=1&safe=strict&q=Albania>.

"Google." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016. <https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-                                            8#newwindow=1&safe=strict&q=Balkans>.

"Google." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016. <https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-                                            8#newwindow=1&safe=strict&q=Bulgaria>.

"Google." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016. <https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-                                  8#newwindow=1&safe=strict&q=Turkey>.

"Google." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016. <https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-                                8#q=Greece>.

"Greece.GreekReporter.com Latest News from Greece." GreeceGreekReportercom Latest News from Greece. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan.               2016. <http://greece.greekreporter.com/2014/03/25/ancient-greek-inventions-in-modern-society/>.

 "Greek Architecture." : Introduction. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016. <http://www.factmonster.com/encyclopedia/world/greek-                                         architecture.html>.

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Work Cited

"History of Greece: The Dark Ages." History of Greece: The Dark Ages. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016. <http://ancient-                                                          greece.org/history/dark-ages.html>.

"History of Greece: The Stone Age." History of Greece: The Stone Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016. <http://ancient-                                                                 greece.org/history/stone-age.html>.

"Learn Greek." Learn Greek Words, Learn How to Speak Greek. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016.                                                                                                    <http://www.explorecrete.com/various/greek-language.htm>.

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"Top 10 Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greece." AncientHistoryLists. N.p., 22 Oct. 2014. Web. 13 Jan. 2016.                                                <http://www.ancienthistorylists.com/greek-history/top-10-inventions-discoveries-ancient-greece-remarkably-used-today/>.

 Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crete#Physical_geography>.

Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclades#Geography>.

 

 

For Further Reading

George O' Connor Olymipans Series