Civil War- A war between the same country

A war that divides a country and its citizens

The Civil War 

 By: Brenner Hempfling

One disadvantage of the North was the fact that they had to go in the South and subdue them. The South also had a lot of support for the war. They thought the South would win because it was like the American Revolution.

President-Abrham Lincoln

General- Ulysses Grant

General- George McClellan

General- Robert Anderson

General- Nathaniel Richards

 

Weaknesses

Leaders 

 Nicknames and Army Population

War Aims and Strategies

The North had an army of about 187,000 soldiers later consisted of 2.1 million. The army was usually called the Yankees.

The North's main goal is to try and bring the Southern States back in the Union. They would try and blockade the southern ports and stop the South from getting money. Next they would try and gain control of the Mississippi River. They also planned on taking over the Confederate's Capital. Later on in the war, the North tried to end slavery. 

The North 

The North had many Strengths. They included a higher population, more industry, and more resources. They could raise money because they had a better banking system. Another advantage is the railways. Later on they would find out that President Lincoln was very intelligent and that he was one reason they one the war.

-Maine

-New York 

-New Hampshire

-Vermont

-Massachusetts

-Connecticut

-Rhode Island

-Pennsylvania

-New Jersey

-Ohio

-Indiana

 Strengths

States 

-Illinois

-Kansas

-Michigan

-Wisconsin

-Minnesota

-Iowa

-California

-Nevada

-Oregon

The South had many weaknesses. They didn't have as many people as the North, railways, and factories. This meant that they didn't get that many supplies.

President- Jefferson Davis

General- Robert E. Lee

General- Stonewall Jackson

General- Bloody Bill Anderson

General- George Pickett

Weaknesses

 Leaders

War Aims and Strategies

 The South

Nicknames and Army Population

The people in the Confederacy called Rebels. This army consisted of 112,000 men originally and 850,000 later on in the war.

The South was trying to prove to the other states that they wanted to be an independent state. The South attempted to create a defense strategy to prevent the North from entering. Some leaders in the South tried to go offensive and persuade the North that the South would win.

Some of the advantages in the South were fighting in familiar territory and were military trained. There were a lot of officers that had graduated from college and were good soldiers.

Strengths

States

-Alabama

-Florida

-Georgia

-Louisiana

-Mississippi

-South Carolina

-Texas

-Arkansas

-North Carolina

-Tennessee

-Virginia

Strengths 

Kansas-Nebraska Act

The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed citizens that lived in Kansas and Nebraska to decide if they wanted slavery. Stephen Douglass came up with the idea of using popular soverignt. Douglas believed that he could just forget about the Missouri Compromise. The idea of popular sovereignty made Northerners mad. 

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1A-FiQb0HgnKa9uZ2SqbuNmM7l9HQO8shOOq336l5Kb0/edit

Secession Events and Causes

Bleeding Kansas

John Brown was a man who went into Kansas killing 5 pro-slavery supporters. He went in there with his sons and some men into Kansas with broadswords. This was the reason why some people called this bloodshed Bleeding Kansas.

For more causes, go to this link

States in the South seceded because they felt like the North was going to take slavery away from them. They feared the Republican party would not protect their rights. South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union.

Secession

 Attack on Fort Sumter

President Lincoln warned the South that if they tried anything, they would be attacked. On April 12, 1861 the South would attack a Fort that is low on supplies. Confederate president Jefferson Davis gave the orders to attack Fort Sumter before supplies had arrived. This was the beginning of the Civil War.

The South was able take the fort and theNorth surrendered. No lives were lost during the battle on either side. The North lost the battle.  

President Abraham Lincoln

Captain Abner Doubleday

Commander Robert Anderson

The battle of Fort Sumter was located near Charelston, South Carolina. This was occured at the Charelston harbor. 

Outcome

Location

North

 The Battle of Fort Sumter

Fort Sumter was running low on supplies. President Abrham Lincoln sent supplies to the Fort. The battle started when Jefferson Davis, the Confederate president, gave the order to attack the Fort before supplies would arrive.

Why

President Jefferson Davis 

Commander P.G.T. Beauregard

 The battle lasted for 33 hours. People inside of the Fort evacuated the day after. The battle of Fort Sumter one of the most important battles because it was the one that started the Civil War.

The battle of Fort Sumter began on April 12, 1861. It ended on April 14 161.

South

When 

What 

President Abraham Lincoln

Army Officer Irvin McDowell

 

The South was losing at first because the North was pushing them back. once the South met up with some reinforcements, they started pushing the North back. The Union had 2896 casualties and the Confederacy had 1982 casualties.

The battle was fought in northern Virginia near a town called Manassas Junction. This was near the river Bull Run.

Outcome

Location

North

 The First Battle of Bull Run

The battle began because the Union challenged the Confederacy. They underestimated the South because of the amount of people. They started fighting next to the river called Bull Run.

Why 

The battle consisted of many inexperienced soldiers. The yankees were pushing the rebels back until the rebels met up with some reinforcements. The rebels became the ones that were pushing back.

President Jefferson Davis

General "Stonewall" Jackson

The battle of Fist Bull Run began on July 21, 1861. It ended on July 21, 1861.

What

When

South

President Abrham Lincoln

General Ulysses S. Grant

Commander Andrew Hull Foote

The confederacy had surrendered to the Union. This was a major victory to Ulysses S. Grant.The Union had 2,691 causualties and the Confederacy had 13,846 casualties.

The battle of Fort Donelson was located in between the Kentucky and Tennessee border. This area was located near Cumberland River

Outcome

Location

North

 The Battle of Fort Donelson

The battle began because Kentucky did not wantto join the Confederacy. This caused the South to create defensive postitions South of the Kentucky border. General Grant would try and capture Fort Donelson

Why

President Jefferson Davis

Commandeer John Buchanan Floyd

Commander Simon B. Buckner

Commander Gideon J. Pillow

 

Conderates were struggling to defend the fort. They had many disagreements but came to a consensus. The Confederate army had surrendered.

The battle began on February 11,1862. It ended on February 16, 1862.

What

When

South

The Battle of Hampton Roads was fought in Norfolk, Virginia. It was fought in the waters of a peninsula.

Location 

It was unclear who won this battle. This changed the future of naval battles. There were 369 casualties in the Union and 24 casualties in the Confederacy.

President Abrham Lincoln

Commander John L. Worden

Outcome

North 

The Battle of Hampton Roads 

The reason for the Battle of Hampton Roads was because the North had created a blockade. They had done this so that it would cut off some of the supplies in the South. Southerners did not want this to happen so they salvaged a warship and made it an ironclad. The Union brought in their own ironclad and fought the Confederacy on the water.

Why

President Jefferson Davis

Commander Franklin Buchanan

Ironclad ships played an important role in this battle. The Confederacy ship renamed the Merrimack the Virginia and attached iron plates to it.  The ships would fight but niether the Virginia nor the Monitor could sink each other.

South

What 

The battle began on March 8, 1862. The battle ended on March 9, 1862.

When

President Abrham Lincoln

General Ulyssess S. Grant

Commander Don Carlos Buell

The battle of Shiloh was another victory for the Union. Grant's army overpowered Beauregard's. The Union had 13,047 casualties and the Confederacy had 10,669 casualties.

The battle of Shiloh was in Hardin County, Tennessee. This was a location that had a lot of ponds and rivers. There were a lot of fields, too. They got the name Shiloh from a church nearby.

Outcome

Location

North 

The Battle of Shiloh

The battle started because the Union wanted to take control of Memphis, Tennessee. The Union wanted to be one step closer to capturing the Mississippi River. 

Why 

President Jefferson Davis

Commander P.G.T. Beauregard

Commander Albert Sidney Johnston

The Battle of Shiloh was one of the bloodiest battles in the Civil war. The Yankees outnumbered the Confederacy and Beauregard retreated back into Corinth.

The battle started on April 6, 1862. It ended on April 7, 1862. 

South

When

What 

This battle was fought in Prince William County. This was next to the River Bull Run just like the First Battle of Bull Run

The Confederacy had won this battle. The Union retreated back over the River Bull Run. Lee took the opportunity to lead his army into Maryland.

President Abrham Lincoln

General John Pope

Outcome

Location

North

The Battle of Second Bull Run

The battle began because the South wanted to stop a supply base that was in Manassas. The Confederacy had to walk for 50 miles until they met up with more soldiers. General Pope tried to stop the Confederates from taking the base.

Why

During the battle, the Union had tried to stop the Confederacy. The Confederacy however, was very strategic and counterattacked many of the Union's strategies.

President Jefferson Davis

General Robert E. Lee

The battle began on August 28, 1862. The battle ended on August 30, 1862.

South

What

When

It was unclear who won this battle. The Union suffered 12,041 casualties and the Confederacy had 10,316 casualties. This gave the Union a victory and led to the emancipation proclamation.

President Abrham Lincoln

General George B. McClellan

The Battle of Antietam was fought in Sharpsburg, Maryland. It took place next to Antietam Creek.

Outcome

Location

North

The Battle of Antietam

General McClellan was nervous and did not attack the Condefederate soldiers for four days. The Confederate soldiers recieved supplies and reinfocements in that time. After that the Confederacy and the Union fought.

Why

The battle was one of the bloodiest battles in the war. General McClellan was nervous and waited four days. Robert E. Lee was ready for him and attacked. The Union had pushed their troops forward.

The battle began on September 16, 1862. The battle ended on September 18,1862.

President Jefferson Davis

General Robert E. Lee

What

When

South

The location of the battle was at Washington County,

 Maryland. This was at the Rappahannock River.

The Confederacy won the battle and the Union suffered many casualties. President Lincoln got rid of General Burnside. The Union had 13,353 casualties and the Confederacy had 4,576.

President Abraham Lincoln

General Ambrose E. Burnside 

Location

Outcome

North

The Battle of Fredericksburg

Abrham Lincoln got rid of General McClellan and replaced him with General Burnside. The President wanted Burnside to attack the Confederacy and not just wait around like McClellan.

Why

This was one of the most deadliest battles during the Civil War. General Burnside had an idea to use 60,000 soldiers to get rid of General Lee's southern flank. This method had caused a lot of soldiers of the Union to die.

President Jefferson Davis

General Robert E. Lee

The battle started on December 11, 1862. It ended on December 18, 1862.

When

What

South

The Confederacy won another battle. During the battle, Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded. The Union suffered 17,304 casualties. and the Confederacy had 13,460 casualties.

The battle of Chancellorsville was fought at Spotsylvania County, Virginia. This area had treesand thickets surrounding it.

 

President Abraham Lincoln

Commander Joseph Hooker

Outcome

Location

North

The Battle of Chancellorsville

General joseph Hooker had created a plan. This plan would have his army move upstream and across the river at several fords before swinging back toward Lee's flank and rear, forcing him to retreat toward Richmond.

Why

Gen. Lee divided his troops for an assault. During the battle, confederate troops accidentally shot Gen Jackson's party. General Stonewall Jackson had lost one of his arms and died a week later.

President Jefferson Davis 

General Roberrt E. Lee

General Stonewall Jackson

The battle started when onApril 30 and ended on May 6, 1863.

What

When

South

President Abraham Lincoln

General Ulysses S. Grant

This battle was fought at Warren County, Mississippi. It was near the confederate river fortress Vicksburg.

The Union won this battle and took control of the Mississippi River. The Union had 4,910 casualties and the Confederacy had 32,492 casualties

Outcome

Location

North

The Assault on Vicksburg

The Assault of Vicksburg began because General Grant undertook a new and bold campaign against Vicksburg and the Confederate defenders under General Pemberton.

Why

The battle began when the general conducted a surprise landing below Vicksburg at Bruinsburg, Mississippi, Grant’s forces moved rapidly inland, pushing back the threat posed by Joseph E. Johnston’s forces near Jackson. General Pemberton retreated back to Vicksburg defenses. Pemberton surrendered to Grant 47 days later.

President Jefferson Davis

Commander John C. Pemberton

The battle began on May 18, 1863. It ended on July 4, 1863.

What

When

South

The Confederacy retreated and Union won. President Lincoln had  Gettysburg's Soldiers National Cemetery to honor the fallen Union soldiers and redefine the purpose of the war in his historic Gettysburg Address.The Union had 23,049 casualties and the Confederacy had 28,063 casualties.

President Abrham Lincoln

General George G. Meade 

The battle of gettysburg was fought at Adams County, Pennsylvania.

Outcome

Location

North

The Battle of Gettysburg

General  Lee intended to collect supplies in the abundant Pennsylvania farmland and take the fighting away from war-ravaged Virginia. General Meade was inside Northern Pennsylvania at the time. When Lee found out that Meade was in pennsylvania they fought at Gettysburg. 

Why

 During the battle  30,000 Confederates ultimately defeated 20,000 Yankees, who fell back through Gettysburg to the hills south of town--Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill. The Union defended a fishhook-shaped range of hills and ridges south of Gettysburg. General Lee then retreated. 

President jefferson Davis

General Robert E. Lee

The battle started on July 1 and ended on July 3, 1863.

When

South

What

The Surrender at Appomattox and the Terms of Surrender

The war had gone on for 4 years already and took the lives of more than 600,000 Americans. The Confederacy was sick, tired, and hungry. There weren't many more options for them to choose from. Lee said," There is nothing left for me but to go and see General Grant", and knew that he was hopeless. On April 9, 1865, Lee said that he was tired of  this and he surrendered to General Grant. The Union and the Confederacy met up in a village in Virginia. The place that they met up at was called the Appomattox Court House. Grant was kind to the Confederacy because he had allowed them to drop their weapons and go. Grant allowed them to take their horses with them as well. The other Confederate forces had surrendered a few days later. The confederate president, Jefferson Davis, was captured on May 10, 1865. 

Ulysses S. Grant was born on April 27, 1822 at the Ohio River. His father was a farmer and tanner. He attended the Military Academy at West Point. Grant did not do so well in there and was glad to get out. He met his wife, Julia dent, after college. Before they could marry, he was sent off to the war with Mexico. There he was a quartermaster. Grant was credited for his bravery under fire. Later he had 4 kids. Grant volunteered for the Civil War when he heard of the attack on Fort Sumter.

Early Life

Ulysses S. Grant

Vicksburg

Shiloh

Gettysburg

Fort Donelson

Appomattox Court House

 

Victories

Who was Ulysses S. Grant?

Ulysses S. Grant was one of the most Federal Generals. At first, Grant was not accepted. When he got his chance to show his skills as a leader. Abrham Lincoln was very impressed. He was given the ability to command the Union military by Abrham Lincoln. Ulysses S. Grant was good at strategies. At the end of the war, Ulysses had allowed the Confederate soldiers to surrender. He was generous to them and let them go back home to their families. 

General Robert E. Lee was born on January 19, 1807 in Stratford, Virginia. Lee enrolled at West Point Military Academy and was a good student. He got perfect scores on all of his assignments. A little bit later after that he married Mary Custis. They had seven children together. Lee went on to fight in the war with Mexico. he proved to be a brave soldier.

Early Life

Robert E. Lee

Second Bull Run

Antietam

Fredericksburg

Chancellorsville

 

Victories

Robert E. Lee was one of the most famous Confederate generals. Lee was chosen to be a Union General. He wanted to do this because he did not believe in slavery or secession. This was hard for him but he had chosen to becom a Confederate Leader because he felt loyal to his home state, Virginia.

Who was Robert E. Lee?

Slavery played a large role in the Civil War. This is one of the major differences between the North and the South. The North believed that there shouldn't be slavey. This does not mean that the North treated them equally though. Former slaves such as Harriet Tubman would try and free slaves through the Underground Railroad. African American people would later be able to participate in the Civil War.

Slaves

Life During the Civil War

Children played an important role in the war. Some of them would follow their elders footsteps and join the military as musicians. There were 48 children under the age of 18 that won a Medal of Honor for their bravery.  

Families during the Civil War were split. They would usually write letters to each other. A soldiers life was very dull and boring. Soldiers would usually have to deal with bad weather, marches, bad food, and and drills. Many soldiers ran away because of how depressing life was during the Civil War. 

Soldiers

Children

Women had to become teachers and office workers. They had to struggle with the deaths of their husbands and brothers. They would help the military by rolling bandages, weaving blankets, and creating ammunition. They would also act as spies to get information out of leaders for the Union and Confederacy. Some would also dress up like men to fight in the war such as Loretta Janeta Velazquez. Tons of Women would serve as nurses. 

Women

The Union had won the war. Robert E. Lee had surrendered and lost the war. Lee and his soldiers were able to go back home as long as they dropped their weapons. Jefferson Davis was captured on May 10. What was left of the Confederacy surrendered to the Union.  More than 600,000 lives were lost due to the war. The South carried a grudge against the North because they lost for many years. This war cause billions of dollars of damage.

Who Won?

Results of the Civil War

After the war, President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. They chose the vice president, Andrew Johnson as the president. The South's economy was in a state of collapse due to all of the devestation. Almost two-thirds of the transportation was destroyed. Almost 600,000 soldiers had died during the war. Millions of slaves in the North were freed. Slavery was still in the South though and African Americans were still treated differently. A few years later, an era known as the Reconstruction was created.

Life After the War

Discovering our Past:

The American Journey

Cites Used

http://www.biography.com/

http://www.civilwar.org

http://www.historynet.net/

Links

Book