Exploring science Magazine first Issue, Dcember

COLEGIO EKIRAYÁ-EDUCACIÓN MONTESSORI FIRST ISSUE, DECEMBER 2015
COLEGIO EKIRAY  -EDUCACI  N MONTESSORI FIRST ISSUE, DECEMBER 2015
Table of content LETTER FROM THE EDITORS 2 SCIENCE THROUGH CARTOONS 3 RUTHERFORD´S EXPERIMENT BY LAURA CARREÑO 3 3 365 SOLUCIONES PARA REDUCIR LA HUELLA DE CARBONO 3 SOL Y SOMBRA 3 EXPLORING ARTICLES 7 THE EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON VEGETATION JULIANA TOVAR 15/10/15 THE EFFECTS OF CHOCOLATE ON THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM BY ISABELLA ACOSTA CELIA? NO, CELIAC! BY: AINARA ECHEVERRI ÁVILA ¿PUEDE LA HERENCIA DE GENES ESTAR LIGADA AL GÉNERO? POR JUAN DANIEL CASTRILLÓN LA POLIPLOIDIA: ¿FENÓMENO POSITIVO O NEGATIVO? POR: PAULA SOFÍA TORRES Y MARÍA BARROS 7 7 12 12 13 13 16 16 21 21 COLLABORATIVE WORK IN SCIENCE 24 WORKSHOP 3: PHYSICS THROUGH MIND MAPS AND COLLABORATIVE WORK WORKSHOP 1 AND 2: SCIENCE FAIR 24 25 FREE SCIENCE 26 FIRST ECO-PHOTOGRAPHY CONTEST OUR SCIENCE ACTIVITIES 26 28 PRAE: PROYECTO AMBIENTAL ESCOLAR 29 PRAE PROYECTO AMBIENTAL ESCOLAR POR: MARCELA BERNAL PALACIO Y VANESSA LEÓN 29 29 Página 1 de 30
Table of content LETTER FROM THE EDITORS  2  SCIENCE THROUGH CARTOONS  3  RUTHERFORD  S EXPERIMENT BY LAURA CARRE  O  3 3 ...
Biannual Magazine Exploring Science Workshop 3 and 4 Colegio Ekirayá-Educatión Montessori www.colegiomontessori.com Letter from the editors Greetings and a warm welcome to our very first issue of Exploring Science Magazine! Important dates 10/12/2015 Ekirayá Science Fair 26/01/2016 We couldn’t be more excited to have made it to this point. Please take some time to get to know the layout of our magazine. You will notice the six categories of articles: Science through Cartoons, Exploring Articles, Collaborative Work in Science, Free Science and PRAE. Within each category, there are some articles for you to enjoy. Environmental education day You can examine the articles and choose which to read first. Just as with a paper magazine, you may want to sit and read the whole thing at once, or come back to this issue several times to digest the articles more slowly and learn from different science topics. 04/02/2016 What you will find in the pages of Exploring Science Magazine is a collection of inspired and instructive articles written by students and teachers who work hard to have their work published in this Magazine. We are honored to share the work of so many committed and thoughtful students. Please read and enjoy what your classmates, friends, siblings and teachers have to share with you. We appreciate your support and are so happy to have you as a reader of Exploring Science Magazine. Best Regards, Marcela Bernal and Vanessa León, Editors 02/02/2016 Wetlands international day Free car day Magazine main topics Science through cartoons: Learning science while drawing Exploring articles: 7 interesting articles about science Collaborative work in science: Learning physics through collaborative work Free Science: Photography contest PRAE: Proyecto Ambiental Escolar Página 2 de 30
Biannual Magazine  Exploring Science Workshop 3 and 4 Colegio Ekiray  -Educati  n Montessori www.colegiomontessori.com  Le...
Science Through Cartoons Rutherford´s Experiment by Laura Carreño 365 soluciones para reducir la huella de carbono Sol y Sombra Deja de depender exclusivamente de la calefacción o calentadores eléctricos y saca partido del sol y la sombra para mantener tu casa a una temperatura agradable. TIps: Pinta tu casa de colores claros si vives en un lugar caluroso, y oscuros si vives en un lugar frío. Cuando les da el sol, las superficies oscuras pueden acumular hasta 40°C más de calor que las superficies blancas. Los exteriores de color oscuro absorben entre un 70 y un 90% de la energía solar que llega a tu hogar. Página 3 de 30
Science Through Cartoons Rutherford  s Experiment by Laura Carre  o  365 soluciones para reducir la huella de carbono Sol ...
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Exploring Articles The effects of acid rain on vegetation Juliana Tovar 15/10/15 Introduction described the acidic nature of the From the beginning humans have rain surrounding the industrial town used natural resources to make of Manchester, U.K. in a paper their more entitled “The air and rain beginning efficient. One of the main thing of chemical climatology”. Since humans need nowadays is energy. then, scientists have given acid rain Energy a more appropriate name “acid lives is simpler normally and crated by burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and deposition”. natural gas; when these recourses occurred in zones around industrial are burned, they release several areas as dry deposition, in which toxic the acids transform into salts in soil and mostly damage the environment, but due crated by the transport sector, to the high pollution, acids also industrialization and urbanization merge into the atmosphere and (Singh and Agrawal, 2006). can fall to the ground thousands of substances atmosphere; they into are Initially, this only miles away from the pint of emission Normally, when this pollution is (Singh and Agrawal, 2006). found in the atmosphere we can It is rowdily believed that acid also find acid rain. Acid rain is a deposition is the result of the description of several ways pollution washouts of oxides of sulphur, falls out of the atmosphere in the nitrogen, and other constituents, way of acid. This includes acid rain, and the main producers of these fog, hail or snow. The first ever pollutants are coal fired power recorded occasion in which the station, which produce SO2 (sulfur concept of acid rain was used was oxides), and vehicles exhausts, in 1872 when Robert Angus Smith that produce NO (nitrogen Página 7 de 30
Exploring Articles The effects of acid rain on vegetation Juliana Tovar 15 10 15 Introduction  described the acidic nature...
oxides); this mix with other damage buildings, fauna, flora and chemicals to produce corrosive humans (Acid rain – Wikipedia, N.D). substances that are washed out (Singh and Agrawal, 2006). In this article we will analyze the effects this corrosive acids have Sulphur dioxide on vegetation and what can be done with this problem. Nitrogen oxide What is acid rain? Common or unpolluted rainwater There are two main sources of this has an acidic pH, due to the natural type of pollution. First is natural carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, causes; this pollution can come but this pH does not go lower than from a natural environment without 5.7 (is important to clarify to the any reader for complete understanding example, the principal producer of of the topic, that pH measures the acid-producing concentration of hydrogen in a atmosphere are volcanic emissions, compound or solution. When it’s as an example we can see the said that pH is lower than seven the ‘Poas’ volcano in Costa Rica that solution is acidic, when is even is has neutral and when is higher than 7, is Caliente’ crater, this opening in the a base). So when the atmospheric planet’s crust emits steam and human fumaroles intervention, gases near in for the ‘Laguna water gets in contact with the primary causatives of this event, that are sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO), the pH of the rainwater solution goes lower the 5.7; because this solution is so acid it becomes corrosive and can gases with a high acidity marking a pH of 2, this causes the complete Página 8 de 30
oxides    this  mix  with  other  damage buildings, fauna, flora and  chemicals to produce corrosive  humans  Acid rain   ...
fatality of the nearby vegetation the pH of rainwater in Sweden was and irritates the lings and eyes of the 4 or less. Today, in the 21 st century, inhabitants settlements. the main countries with a acid Second, we have human causes; deposition problem are: Canada, the main causes of acidic rain are England, electric motor Norway, Denmark, West Germany, vehicles. The electric generators use The Netherland, Austria, Switzerland, coal as a fossil fuel which the burn Russia, Poland and Czechoslovakia, this process produces a lot of Southwest China and Japan (Singh pollution. On the other hand we and Agrawal, 2006). have of near generators motor and vehicles Scotland, Sweden, emissions, which aren’t very massive in each Effect of acid rain on vegetation individual vehicle, but nowadays First we will see the effect of acid with a massive population that deposition in rain forests. The effect needs transport the emissions are of acid deposition on higher plants increasing at a dramatic speed is only seen rather in the roots or in (Acid rain – Wikipedia, N.D). the foliage; the main issue is the direct impact in the foliage and consequent absorption in the roots. This may cause regressive death of the crown of the tree, direct damage in the plant tissue and death of the whole tree. This can be The first acid deposition reported seen in 1982 in West Germany, when concedes industrial 7.7% of 7.4 million hectares of forests revolution. In mid-19th century they were visibly damaged and within a observed year, with an the acid deposition 34% of the trees had problem in England, then some discoloration issues and major lost of decades later, in the late 1960s they leafs. By 1984 half of the forest has discovered regional symptoms of disease. The solution phenomenon in Scandinavia when for this problem has been a main a Página 9 de 30
fatality of the nearby vegetation  the pH of rainwater in Sweden was  and irritates the lings and eyes of the  4 or less. ...
topic, being intensely researched in find better and cleaner energy both Europe and North America resources, due that most of the (Singh and Agrawal, 2006). energy we use nowadays comes Secondly we will analyze the effect from plants that burn coal as a fossil on crop plants. When we say crop fuel. Other alternatives could be plant small solar, wind and hydraulic energy. massive After finding sustainable energy we vegetation talk about planted in quantities for human consumption. recourse we can reduce vehicle emissions by distributing electric cars, which Another are immediate eco-friendly. action that must be taken is restoring the damaged areas with a constant There have been several researches about this topic and most of them confirm that when crop plants are exposed to rainwater with a pH lower than 3.0 they notably lose leaf area and the CO2 fixation decreases, this is very dangerous because potentially plants could die due to their restriction of CO2 fixation (Singh and Agrawal, 2006). treatment and special care. But by far the most important thing that must be done in individuals taking action in their everyday life, for example: turning off lights and other appliances that are not being used, purchase energy-efficient appliances, use a vehicle with no NO (nitrogen oxide) emissions or use it less, and most importantly be well informed (Reducing acid rain – EPA, What can be done? The first thing that needs to be done N.D). to have awareness of the situation and realize that this problem affects our environment and human health and it must be our duty to comprehend and solve this issue. Next thing that can be done is to Página 10 de 30
topic, being intensely researched in  find better and cleaner energy  both Europe and North America  resources, due that m...
Conclusion Secondly as individuals, we must Acid rain problem is happening right face the problem by being well now as a result of the generalized informed about the consequences use of artifacts which depend on of our consumption habits and fossil consequently make daily changes in our lives. This produce acid emission that affect may help this problem that is negatively fauna, humans, and as destroying ecosystems and life in we could see vegetation which is general. energy and slowly decaying in certain parts of the planet. Certainly, the main References causes of this problem lye in the way Singh A. Agrawal M. (2006). Acid rain humans produce energy. These and its ecological consequences. common practices, consequently, have had a major destruction of the impact in environment. Finally, we saw that in the face of Journal of environmental biology. Wikipeidia. (N.D.). Acid rain. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid_rain #Natural_phenomena this global problem, action has to Environmental Protection Agency. be taken in a small and a large (N.D.) . Reducing acid rain. Retrived scale from: in order to reduce the problem to the minimum. Primarily, http://www3.epa.gov/acidrain/reduci in ng/index.html#clean governments public policies around the world regarding clean industrial production. These policies must demand that industries follow certain rules about emissions. National Geographic. (N.D). Acid Rain. Retrived from: http://environment.nationalgeographi c.com/environment/globalwarming/acid-rain-overview/ Página 11 de 30
Conclusion  Secondly as individuals, we must  Acid rain problem is happening right  face the problem by being well  now as...
The effects of chocolate on the endocrine system By Isabella Acosta When you finally understand how chocolate can affect you, you can strategically enjoy it for hormonal benefits. The benefits of chocolate come from the cocoa, this is why dark chocolate is much more helpful than milk chocolate1. Dark chocolate contains at least 50 percent cocoa and has less sugar than other forms of chocolate. White chocolate is the worst; it does not even have any cocoa in it! It has cocoa butter, and that is a completely different thing. When chocolate is consumed in moderation, it can help improve your hormone health, plus, chocolate can help lower your stress levels. Chocolate contains some compounds that can react with your body to help limit the excretion of stress hormones. Chocolate also has benefits for heart health. Dark chocolate has flavonoids, which can improve blood flow and lessen buildup of bad cholesterol. Chocolate is also proven to help boost your mood, really! It contains phenyl ethylamine, a mood elevator that makes your pulse race slightly, and raises blood-glucose levels. Furthermore, it contains anandamides, and chemicals that trigger the release of endorphins, all of which helps people feel happier. Almost everybody experiences chocolate cravings, and chocolate cravings can be hormonal. One of the things that can cause them is the temporary boost in mood it gives you. The person wants the happy feeling to continue after it wears off so obviously they want to eat more chocolate. Women, in particular, may notice their cravings for chocolate increase when they are menstruating. Out of control, hormone levels can be a cause of cravings for chocolate. A recommended serving of chocolate is two small squares of dark chocolate per day, or one ounce. That may be enough to stop your cravings and allow yourself to enjoy the benefits of the chocolate. In addition, you will not be consuming too much of the sugar and fat included inside of this tasty treat. More research is still being conducted on chocolate, so hopefully maybe in the near future we will be able to find even more benefits in eating chocolate. Taken from http://usercontent2.hubimg.com/5584767_f260.jpg 1 So what should you do if you have a chocolate craving? Do not be afraid to indulge yourself a little. Taken from Cerebro de Pan de David Perlmutter Página 12 de 30
The effects of chocolate on the endocrine system By Isabella Acosta When you finally understand how chocolate can affect y...
Celia? No, celiac! BY: Ainara Echeverri Ávila To have things clear from the beginning, I think I should explain briefly what gluten is: it is the general name for the different proteins that can be found in wheat, rye, barley, and triticale. Wheat can be found in bread, soups, pasta, cereals, sauces, salad dressings, baked goods, etc. Barley can be found in malt, soups, malt vinegar, beer, or food coloring. Rye can be found in cereals, and rye bread and beer. Triticale is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale), and can be found in cereals, breads and pasta. Now you know what it is and where it can be found. If you need a no-gluten diet, you should take this into account. But gluten, as many other things, has its dark side. Gluten is considered a “potential neurotoxin”, according to the Gluten Free Society. It causes neurological damage before gastrointestinal symptoms, like upset stomach, appear. There are many diseases related to sensibility to gluten, some are autoimmune, some are allergies, and some others are innate. However, in this article I want to focus on one specific disease that may affect the nervous system: celiac. Celiac disease is a very common autoimmune disease or condition in which the person has an unfavorable reaction to gluten, it is not an allergy or intolerance to gluten. It is autoimmune because the immune system fails and attacks its own organs and tissues, and in this case it affects the gastrointestinal tract because it swells. The inflammation can cause the villi (small, finger-like structures that help the small intestine absorb nutrients) to be shortened and eventually flattened out. When this happens cause intestinal damage, which leads to the symptoms listed below. Symptoms Some of the gastrointestinal symptoms that can appear after eating foods containing gluten are:        Diarrhea caused by bad absorption of nutrients Flatulence Abdominal pain Weight loss Constant tiredness caused by malnutrition (not getting enough nutrients from food2) Children not growing at the expected rate3 Gastrointestinal tract inflammation Inflammation can increase the risk of developing certain cancers such as small intestine or esophagus cancer. In addition, the bad absorption of nutrients can cause several different problems in many organs of the affected person: anemia, caused by iron deficiency; vitamin deficiencies, osteoporosis, itchy skin rashes, joint pain, chronic fatigue, infertility and recurrent miscarriages, among others. However, what is going on with the nervous system? Why is it affected by gluten? Well, some neurological problems have been associated with the disease. These include migraines, depression, ADHD (Attention 2 , 2 http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Coeliac- disease/Pages/Introduction.aspx Página 13 de 30
Celia  No, celiac  BY  Ainara Echeverri   vila To have things clear from the beginning, I think I should explain briefly w...
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), and epilepsy. It’s important to take into account that people affected by this disease can have one or many of the listed health problems, but may not have gastrointestinal symptoms; or they might just not have celiac disease at all, but another disease because all symptoms are unspecific (they occur in various diseases). Treatment Celiac disease is still under investigation because its causes and cures and not clear. So far there is no cure for this disease, although a gluten-free diet could help control symptoms and prevent long-term consequences of the disease. It is important, though, that even if you have no apparent symptoms you should change your diet to prevent future health problems and serious complications. Most people are more likely to be affected by gluten because of genetics, and mostly if their ancestors are from northern Europe, although the inheritance pattern is unknown. The majority of people that could possibly inherit the disorder are at major risk of getting sick because they all have a light intolerance to gluten in their genes In order to treat patients with celiac disease, doctor must take into account that celiac disease not only affects the small intestine and the immune system, it can also affect the nervous system. Celiac disease can be symptomatic or silent. If it is symptomatic, it will show evident symptoms that can serve as a diagnosis, but if it is silent, there will be no symptoms. Silent celiac disease can stay undiagnosed for several years, and people who are affected by it have immune proteins (antibodies) in their blood, as well as inflammatory damage in the small intestine, which can be detected with a biopsy. Complications If the disease is not treated on time, it can cause several problems in the body. Some long-term complications are osteoporosis, anemia, and vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency anemia. In addition, if the disease is not treated it can cause serious damage in the brain by causing problems in its functioning, because the immune system can start attacking it too, since the celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder. Less common, but more serious, complications include those that affect pregnancy, such as a low-birth-weight baby, or miscarriage. In addition, if the disease advances to an uncontrollable point, it can cause bowel cancer. Diagnosis In the vast majority of the cases, the disease is not diagnosed as soon as it happens, but between 6 to 10 years later. Also, many other cases are undiagnosed, or the celiac disease is confused with another disease like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In the UK, about one of every 100 people are diagnosed with the disease, and reported cases are two times higher in women than in men. The disease can be developed at any age, although the symptoms may appear during early childhood (between 8-12 months old), or later adulthood (between 40-60 years old). During early childhood, a correct diagnosis may take several years to be made. Página 14 de 30
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder , and epilepsy. It   s important to take into account that people affected by this disease ...
To diagnose celiac disease, a two-stage process is required: first, a blood test is taken to identify people with the disease, and then, a biopsy takes place in order to confirm the diagnosis. The blood test looks for antibodies related to celiac disease. If there are antibodies in the person’s bloodstream, they must be referred to a biopsy. However, it is important to know that it is possible to have the disease but not have antibodies present in the bloodstream. If this occurs, you get a negative blood test, but if you have recurrent disease-like symptoms, you should be referred to a biopsy too. The biopsy will reveal signs of celiac disease after the tube takes samples of your small intestine’s lining. The samples will be examined under a microscope to get an accurate diagnosis. If you are diagnosed with celiac disease, you might have to get another blood test to check your vitamins, minerals, and iron levels in order to determine if you have developed anemia because of the difficulty in absorbing nutrients. If you have itchy skin rash, you will have a skin biopsy to confirm it. If you are diagnosed with the disease, you must take other exams to determine how far the disease has advanced in your body and how have you been affected. Always remember to go to the doctor to check for any disease or infection in your body, so it can be diagnosed and treated on time. To conclude, I’d like to say that gluten is not the bad guy all the time but you do need to be careful with the food you consume and how it can affect your body and your systems, like the immune, digestive, or nervous. References https://celiac.org/live-glutenfree/glutenfreediet/what-is-gluten/ http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/coeliacdisease/Pages/Introduction.aspx http://www.drschaerinstitute.com/smartedit/documents/downlo ad/att147020_es.pdf http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/celiacdisease Página 15 de 30
To diagnose celiac disease, a two-stage process is required  first, a blood test is taken to identify people with the dise...
¿Puede la herencia de genes estar ligada al género? Por Juan Daniel Castrillón Los seres humanos tenemos un total de 46 cromosomas organizados en 23 pares, 22 de ellos son somáticos o autosomas y los dos restantes son llamados cromosomas sexuales, llamados X y Y, estos dos cromosomas definen el sexo de un individuo, si estos son X y X, será mujer, y en caso de que sea X y Y el individuo será hombre. Es importante afirmar que el sexo del individuo, es definido por el espermatozoide, es decir, un cromosoma X es dado por la mujer, más los espermatozoides son los que cargan el otro cromosoma X o el cromosoma Y, como podemos observar en el siguiente cuadro de Punnett. Por otra parte también debemos afirmar es que los cromosomas X y Y, tienen un segmento llamado homologo, es decir, que poseen los mismos genes, y un sector heterologo, donde los genes no se comparten En el sector diferente se encuentran genes en el cromosoma X que no se encuentran en el Y. Estos genes pueden ser igualmente dominantes o recesivos. En primer lugar están los genes recesivos, estos son las más comunes, enfermedades como la hemofilia (La hemofilia es una enfermedad genética recesiva que impide la buena coagulación de la sangre). Y el daltonismo (dificultad para distinguir los colores). Estos dos genes se encuentran en el cromosoma X mas no en el Y, lo que impone diferentes reglas del juego en la genética. En estos casos se encuentra que los hombres poseen aproximadamente 16 veces más estos rasgos o enfermedades ligados al cromosoma X que las mujeres. En primer lugar, están las mujeres, estas poseen dos cromosomas x, y por lo tanto, ellas pueden ser portadoras y no mostrarlo (en los siguientes ejemplos trabajare con d para daltonismo y N para persona normal), en caso de que una mujer sea portadora, su genotipo será Xd XN. En caso de que sea normal este sería XN XN y en caso de que posea la enfermedad, la mujer tendría Xd Xd. Más en caso de los hombres, hay menos posibilidades, este puede tener la enfermedad o no tenerla, ya que por la falta de un segundo cromosoma X, no hay Página 16 de 30
  Puede la herencia de genes estar ligada al g  nero  Por Juan Daniel Castrill  n Los seres humanos tenemos un total de 46...
forma de que haya un gen dominante que impida portar, pero no mostrar la enfermedad. Los hombres con la enfermedad tendrían un genotipo Xd Y y los que no lo tienen, tienen el genotipo de la siguiente manera XN Y. El tercero es entre madre portadora y padre normal: A continuación, mostraré unos cruces para comprender este tema mejor: En primer lugar, el cruce entre padre normal y madre normal Como vemos, el 50% de las hijas será portadora y el resto será normal, y en caso de los hombres, el 50% será normal y el resto será enfermo Ahora será entre padre daltónico y madre portadora: Como podemos ver el 100% de los hijos son normales. El segundo cruce es entre madre normal y padre daltónico: Aquí tenemos que el 50% de las mujeres tendrá la enfermedad, el otro 50% será portadora, y los hombres, la mitad será enfermo y la otra será normal En caso de que la madre sea daltónica y el padre también este sería el resultado En este caso el 100% de las mujeres será portadora, y el 100% de los varones no tendrán la enfermedad Página 17 de 30
forma de que haya un gen dominante que impida portar, pero no mostrar la enfermedad. Los hombres con la enfermedad tendr  ...
Todos los hijos serán enfermos. Y el último caso es entre madre daltónica y padre normal: Mas aquí también está el caso de primero, madre heterocigoto y padre sano, donde un hijo y una hija serán enfermos. También está el caso de madre heterocigoto y padre enfermo, donde todas las hijas serán enfermas y solo la mitad de los hijos tendrá la enfermedad. Todas las hijas serán portadoras y los hijos todos daltónicos. Aquí podemos encontrar un patrón, lo primero es que los hombres nunca heredaran la enfermedad del padre, ya que este no dará el cromosoma X que posee la enfermedad. Otro caso es madre sana y padre enfermo, este daría como resultado la mitad de las hijas enfermas. En este caso los genes no se pueden heredar de padre a hijo varón. Un ejemplo de estos genes es la incontinencia pigmentaria (se forman ampollas en la piel de los recién nacidos y luego se vuelven verrugas, luego aparecen remolinos marrones sobre la piel). Más en el cromosoma X también hay rasgos dominantes, aunque estos no son tan abundantes, en estos genes solo es necesario tener una copia para mostrarlo en el fenotipo. Las mujeres que tengan un cromosoma afectado y el otro no, igualmente se verán afectadas. Aquí, si una mujer es homocigota dominante y el padre es enfermo, toda la descendencia tendrá la enfermedad, más si la mujer es homocigota recesiva y el padre no posee la enfermedad, toda la descendencia será sana. Aunque hay también genes ligados al cromosoma Y, estos genes solamente serán mostrados por los hombres. Y su herencia será solamente de padre a hijo. Ejemplos de este son la ictiosis (escamas en la piel) y la hipertricosis auricular (exceso de vello en las orejas). Los cromosomas influyen en mucho más que el sexo. Estos también influyen en diferentes rasgos, y tienen diferentes comportamientos que los demás genes, ya que los dos genes sexuales no son autosomas, y no todo lo comparten los dos (X y Y). Página 18 de 30
Todos los hijos ser  n enfermos. Y el   ltimo caso es entre madre dalt  nica y padre normal   Mas aqu   tambi  n est   el ...
Para finalizar el escrito quiero poner un test de daltonismo, el test funciona de la siguiente manera, en las siguientes imágenes podrán ver una serie de números. Lo que harán será anotar en una hoja aparte los números que ven, al final verán las respuestas. Si tienen la mayoría como lo ve un daltónico, muy seguramente padeces la enfermedad, aunque para más información podrás ir al oftalmólogo. Página 19 de 30
Para finalizar el escrito quiero poner un test de daltonismo, el test funciona de la siguiente manera, en las siguientes i...
Imagen 1 Imagen 2 Imagen 3 Imagen 4 No daltónico 45 6 8 5 daltónico Nada Nada Nada 5 También esta esté otro test, que da información más completa, para hacerlo puedes ir a el siguiente link Bibliografía http://www.profesorenlinea.cl/Ciencias/Here ncia_ligada_sexo.html http://blogbiologia.blogspot.com.co/2013/03 /herencia-ligada-al-sexo.html http://es.slideshare.net/arielavalos7/exposici on-de-genetica-herencia-ligada-al-sexo http://biologia.cubaeduca.cu/index.php?op tion=com_content&view=article&id=5228%3A herencia-ligada-al-sexo http://modoeficaz.com/eres-daltonicocompruebalo-con-el-test-daltonismo/ Página 20 de 30
Imagen 1 Imagen 2 Imagen 3 Imagen 4  No dalt  nico 45 6 8 5  dalt  nico Nada Nada Nada 5  Tambi  n esta est   otro test, q...
La Poliploidia: ¿fenómeno positivo o negativo? Por: Paula Sofía Torres y María Barros Células con más de dos cromosomas en una pareja de cromosomas se conocen como poliploides, usualmente cuando pensamos en un número mayor de cromosomas al usual asociamos esto con mutaciones negativas y síndromes como el Down, y el Edwards. Sin embargo, la poliploidia no siempre es un factor negativo. En la naturaleza se ve la poliplodia en las plantas angiospermas, 30% de estas plantas tienen células poliploides las cuales se deben a la latitud geográfica de la planta. La poliploidia en plantas angiospermas causa el efecto giga, este efecto hace que la especia aumente en tamaño. Se ha logrado inducir artificialmente la poliploidia para hacer que ciertas plantas crezcan más para satisfacer las necesidades de los humanos como en la agricultura y para tener híbridos. También se ha inducido artificialmente la poliploidia a animales como la trucha para que sea más grande. En los humanos, la poliploidia generalmente se hace presente en desordenes genéticos como el síndrome de Down que es cuando el cromosoma 21 tiene 3 cromosomas en vez de 2, y el síndrome de Edwards en el cual el cromosoma 18 tiene un cromosoma adicional. Pero la poliploidia en humanos no solo se presenta como un desorden genético; en años pasados Andrew Duncan de la Universidad de Ciencias y Salud de Oregón, descubrió que las células del hígado tienen la capacidad de cambiar de número de cromosomas fácilmente. Por la diversidad de genética que tiene el hígado, este órgano es capaz de regenerar sus tejidos ante una lesión rápidamente. Pero, ¿por qué existen mutaciones que cambian un par normal de cromosomas por un cromosoma poliploide? Cuando se replica el ADN de dos gametos para generar el ADN del hijo, el proceso es muy preciso, pero aun así no es perfecto. Sin embargo, errores en la producción del nuevo ADN se pueden producir en cualquier parte de la estructura del ADN; estos errores son los que producen mutaciones que llevan a la creación de poliploides. Estas irregularidades se producen en la profase de la meiosis cuando los cromosomas se unen en la parte de sinapsis para formas tétradas, pero no se separan en la anafase I, lo que causa que una célula esté compuesta por todo el complemento cromosómico y la otra por ninguno. En la segunda división meiotica, la célula que produjo todo el complemento cromosómico produce gametos diploides y al unirse con la otra célula forman un cigoto triploide que se considera poliploide. Casi todos los tipos de anomalías numéricas se eliminan durante la vida prenatal por lo que las únicas que se identifican con frecuencia en el nacido vivo son las que afectan lo autosomas pequeños o los cromosomas sexuales. En el último decenio se han llevado a cabo diversos estudios en los que se emplearon polimorfismos de DNA para investigar el origen de distintas anomalías cromosómicas. Las secuencias supernumerarias cromosómicas son explicadas en casi el 50% de los casos por la no disyunción paterna, existe una variabilidad Página 21 de 30
La Poliploidia    fen  meno positivo o negativo  Por  Paula Sof  a Torres y Mar  a Barros C  lulas con m  s de dos cromoso...
considerable en el estadio de la meiosis en el que origina esta. En la especie humana el número diploide normal de cromosomas es de 46, que consisten en 22 pares de cromosomas autosómicos y un par de cromosomas sexuales. No es chocante que las duplicaciones de los cromosomas tengan implicaciones profundas en la expresión génica normal y sucedan anomalías fisiológicas graves. Es posible tener preparaciones cromosómicas de cualquier tejido que se divida rápidamente deteniendo las células en la metafase. Sin embargo, en la práctica, solo se emplea un pequeño número de tejidos para los análisis cromosómicos: amniocitos o vellosidades. El análisis de los demás tejidos precisa cultivos más prolongados. A finales de la década de 1980, se introdujeron los métodos de FISH, este método es parecido a otros de hibridación DNA-DNA. Como las sondas para colorear cromosomas concretos, se cuenta con una variedad de sondas para la hibridación por fluorescencia, las sondas de repetición y sondas de copia. Estas reconocen las secuencias ampliadas de DNA presentes en los cromosomas. El uso de FISH se ha extendido en los análisis de amniocentesis, estos estudios se efectúan con líquido amniótico sin cultivar. Otro campo en el que se utiliza es en la citogenética oncológica. Además de los análisis FISH en metafase e interface, se ha desarrollado un repertorio de técnicas más potentes par algunos tipos específicos de análisis; tales como: FISH multicolor, la FISH sobre extensiones de fibra de cromatina, para esta en particular, es una técnica en la que se estiran de manera mecánica los cromosomas. Para poder entender la causa de las anomalías cromosómicas, resulta esencial revisar los movimientos de los cromosomas durante la división celular. Cuando la célula empieza la mitosis, cada uno de los 46 cromosomas se alinea en la placa metafasica con los centrómeros orientados hacia los polos apuestos. Durante la anafase se separan los cromatidas, y cada célula hija tiene también 46 cromosomas. Página 22 de 30
considerable en el estadio de la meiosis en el que origina esta. En la especie humana el n  mero diploide normal de cromos...
La evidencia sugiere dos razones que explican esta variación. 1) algunos cromosomas son más propensos a separarse de forma anómala. 2) la capacidad de desarrollo varía entre las distintas enfermedades trisómicas. La poliploidia como se ha demostrado en el texto es causada por diferentes variables. Es importante saber cuándo puede ser algo negativo y cuando puede ser algo positivo. Cada día hay más descubrimientos sobre este fenómeno de la naturaleza que nos ayudan a saber más sobre el tema. Referencias: Al menos 10 – 25% de todos los embarazos supone concepciones cromosómicamente anormales. Los errores durante la meiosis con son sumamente frecuentes. Las anomalías más comunes son numéricas y consisten en fetos con cromosomas adiciones o faltantes. Estas alteraciones cromosómicas estructurales son mucho menos frecuentes. La más común es la trisomía, que es alrededor del 25% de los abortos espontáneos y el 0.3% en bebes recién nacidos. http://biogeneticaimaroca.blogspot.com.co/2009/12/poliploi dia.html http://pendientedemigracion.ucm.es/info/ genetica/grupod/mutacionescro/mutacio nescrosomicas.htm#poliploidia http://www.monografias.com/trabajos7/g ecro/gecro.shtml http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.co m/2010/09/23/the-livers-genetic-conveyor/ HARRISON- principios de medicina interna. Volumen 1 Página 23 de 30
La evidencia sugiere dos razones que explican esta variaci  n. 1  algunos cromosomas son m  s propensos a separarse de for...
Collaborative Work in Science Workshop 3: Physics through mind maps and collaborative work Workshop 3B: Physics and its Effect in daily life Workshop 3A: Physics and its Effect in daily life Students of each class from workshop 3 engaged in learning what physics is working as a whole team. They got the opportunity for discussing, debating issues, making shared decisions, and designing a poster that demonstrates all their learning by working together. As teachers, we'd love our students participating as a collaborative group. Página 24 de 30
Collaborative Work in Science Workshop 3  Physics through mind maps and collaborative work  Workshop 3B  Physics and its E...
Workshop 3C: Physics and its Effect in daily life Workshop 1 and 2: Science Fair Students of each class from workshop 1 and 2 engaged in learning science through experimentation. They got the opportunity for discussing, making shared decisions, and designing different experiments and models that demonstrates a deeper learning in their science topics. As teachers, we'd love our students participating as a collaborative group. Here are some models and experiments of our workshop 2 students. Página 25 de 30
Workshop 3C  Physics and its Effect in daily life Workshop 1 and 2  Science Fair Students of each class from workshop 1 an...
Free science First ECO-Photography contest On November the 20th, The First ECO-Photography Contest was awarded. The main topic for this challenge was urban and paramo biodiversity. The winners were: Category: Workshop 1 and 2 Winner, Tomás Hernández Workshop 2 . Título: El cucarrón florero Descripción: La tomé porque me pareció linda, pero no me di cuenta de que tenía un cucarrón y después lo ví y por eso se llama así Página 26 de 30
Free science First ECO-Photography contest On November the 20th, The First ECO-Photography Contest was awarded. The main t...
Category: Guides First Place: Gabriel Moreno Piano Guide, Suzuki Second Place: Andrés Cubides P.E Guide Página 27 de 30
Category  Guides First Place  Gabriel Moreno Piano Guide, Suzuki  Second Place  Andr  s Cubides P.E Guide  P  gina 27 de 3...
Our science activities Living and enjoying science Workshop 1 and 2 Página 28 de 30
Our science activities Living and enjoying science Workshop 1 and 2  P  gina 28 de 30
Workshop 3 PRAE: Proyecto Ambiental Escolar PRAE PROYECTO AMBIENTAL ESCOLAR Por: Marcela Bernal Palacio y Vanessa León Los problemas ambientales actuales están llevando a nuestro planeta a un deterioro inminente con consecuencias a gran escala, esta situación hace necesario emprender acciones que permitan buscar soluciones a los problemas ambientales y tomar conciencia de la necesidad de conocer y cuidar el entorno, en pro del desarrollo sostenible y el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida. Esto lleva a los colegios hacer un énfasis en la educación ambiental con el fin de acercar a la comunidad educativa a su entorno, de manera que nos apropiemos de nuestro ecosistema y de esta manera podamos trabajar en la protección y mejoramiento del mismo. ECOSSORI propone que el Colegio utilice su entorno para que la comunidad aprenda a valorar los recursos naturales. Para ello se utiliza el entorno escolar como un lugar en donde se viven y establecen relaciones directas y abiertas con el ambiente, propiciando espacios de investigación y trabajo pedagógico, con el uso de diferentes estrategias que fomentan la conciencia ambiental, llevando al estudiante a reconocerse en cada aspecto de la flor de la paz. Página 29 de 30
Workshop 3  PRAE  Proyecto Ambiental Escolar PRAE PROYECTO AMBIENTAL ESCOLAR Por  Marcela Bernal Palacio y Vanessa Le  n L...
El diseño de este proyecto como estrategia educativa, se fundamenta en actividades prácticas, participativas y de contacto con el ambiente, orientadas a la comunidad, para que esta sea protagonista de las relaciones y factores que alimentan su aprendizaje y crecimiento a partir de elementos reales de la vida natural, cultural y social, conforme con la filosofía de la institución que busca que los estudiantes aprendan las habilidades necesarias para ser ciudadanos responsables, productivos, independiente y conscientes de su planeta y su entorno. Lo que se busca es promover procesos pedagógicos interdisciplinarios, cuyo fin sea reflexionar críticamente las formas de ver, razonar e interpretar el entorno y las maneras de relacionarse con él. Igualmente, propicia espacios de trabajo para aproximarse al conocimiento de los diferentes componentes del medio ambiente a través de actividades que faciliten la comprensión y valoración del impacto de las relaciones entre el ser humano, su desarrollo, su cultura y los procesos naturales y, sobre todo, alentando a un cambio de valores, actitudes y hábitos que permitan la implementación del desarrollo sostenible. Photograph by Marcela Bernal Palacio. El Tablazo de Subachoque, 2014 Página 30 de 30
El dise  o de este proyecto como estrategia educativa, se fundamenta en actividades pr  cticas, participativas y de contac...