The Civil War

Lauren Bliss 

Many of the Norths leaders included Fredrick Douglass, Clara Barton, Cheif Justice Robert Taney, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Jefferson Davis. The north was made up of the northern states. This included Maine, New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinios, Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, California, Nevada, and Oregon. 

The Northern States

The Norths Stratagies were to close off the South from the rest of the world. They shut down all the ports in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic. They also took over the Mississippi so they couldn't get new supplies. The Union also took away the rights to export the cotton to Europe Which made the South loose lots of money. 

The northern States were called the Union or a nickname "Yankees." The north's main goal was to obtain the Union. They did not want the South to spilt to form a New Country. 

The North had a huge population advantage but in the first year of the war the two armies were in equal size. The North also had a huge industial advantage. The South only have 1/9 of what the North had. The North had control of the Navy which inportanted the gun powder. This was another huge advantage. 

The southern leaders Robert E. Lee , Stonewall Jackson, and Nathan Bedford Forrest. The south was made up of Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennesee, Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia. 

The Southern States

The South were also called the Rebels. This came from the idea that the South wanted to sucessed from the Union and betray the country. The South decided to wait for the North to come and attack. They belive they would have a better chance winning and destroying the Unions army if they came to them. They also belived that cutting off Europes cotton supply that France and Brittian would come and help. This backfired, Brittian and France decided not to get involved and got their cotton from India and Egypt. 

Many Southern supported secession. They would defend their liberties at no cost. Lincoln had to speak carfully now that the South was seceding he didn't want the border states to secced. He acted bodly suspending constitution rights and it payed off. The border states stayed in the Union. 

Secession and Causes of War

Many things led up to the Civil War happening. Slavery, States Rights, Abolitionist, The Underground Movement, Missouri Compromise were some main parts. Also,  John Brown, Raid on Harpers Ferry, The Election of Licoln and the final thing that set it off was the South Secceding. 

What actually happened and why? 

Who was Involved?

The day after Lincoln was inaugurated he received a call from the general in Fort Sumter. It said that they were running low on supplies and the Southerns were demanding the surrender. Lincoln called the Governor and told him that he was sending supplies with no intention to fight. He did say if you fire first I will have no hesitation to return fire. Before the supplies even got to the fort the Southerners attacked

 

General P.G.T. Beauregard, in command of the Confederate forces around Charleston Harbor, opened fire on the Union garrison holding Fort Sumter. 

Battle of Fort Sumter

When and Where did the battle take place? 

In the end the the confederates made the Union Surrender but 0 lifes were lost.  

On April 12, 1861, General P.G.T. Beauregard, in command of the Confederate forces around Charleston Harbor. This took place in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina

Who won? 

What actually happened and why? 

Who was Involved?

The Union army attacked a smaller Confederate troop. They were both equally inexperienced. As the Union pushed them farther back.  The Confederates rallied back inspired by General Thomas Jackson. He was later known as Stonewal Jackson becuase he fought like a stone wall and would not retreat. They Rebels moved forward and screamed which was later called the Rebel yell. 

 

The battle was between the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. 

Battle of the First Bull Run 

When and Where did the battle take place? 

The Battlewas fought on July 21, 1861 in Prince William County, Virginia, near the city of Manassas, not far from Washington, D.C.

 The Union , who has never heard a scream like this, ran back and retreated in deep terror.In the This outcome shocked the north. President Lincoln did not hesitate but was ready to act. He called for more volenteers and appointed a new General, George B. McClellan. McClellan was incharge of leading the union army in the East called the Potomac.

Who won? 

What actually happened and why? 

Who was Involved?

 

This battle was a battle between the Union and the Confederates.  This took place near the Tennessee- Kentucky border by the Cumberland River. It was a hard fought battle that went on for 6 days. In the end the Union captured the Confederates fort. 

 

Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant crossed the river to attack Fort Donelson. This was a battle against the Grants Union troops and the Fort's Confederates. 

Battle of Fort Donelson 

When and Where did the battle take place? 

February 1862. After the fall of Confederate-held Fort Henry on the Tennessee River to the Union on February 6, 1862, thousands of rebel troops were sent to reinforce the larger Fort Donelson, which was located 10 miles away on the Cumberland River.

The Confederate fort ended up surrenering and the Union took over the fort. This also meant if it was good for the north it was horrible for the South.  This ensured that Kentucky would stay a part of the Union and it opened up possiblities for Tennessee to stay part of the Union. (pg 579)

Who won? 

What actually happened and why? 

Who was Involved?

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This battle is also refered to the Monito Versus the Merrimack. Lincoln had ordered a naval blockade of Southern ports. The south would not let this just happen without fighting back. The southerns found an old Union ship that was abanded in a past battle. The south fixed it up and made the once wood ship covered in Iron plates. 

The North replied with sending it own iron ship into battle. Both ships were not successful in sinking the other. The Union did succeed in keeping the Confederates ship in the harbor. This battle made huge history. This is the first time two metal ships were in  a battle together. The North and the South used these models to make more ships based on theses ones.

 

The  Union was run by Gen. John L. Worden and the confederates were run by Gen. Franklin Buchanan.

Battle of Hampton Roads

When and Where did the battle take place? 

On March 8, 1862 the confederates attacked the Union ships off the coast of Virginia.This battle lasted 2 days.

The battle ended up not haveing a clear winner. The South nor the North won the battle. 

Who won? 

What actually happened and why? 

Who was Involved?

 

 

The Union had an army camped at the Pittsburg Landing. Near by was a church named Shiloh hence the name. The battle lasted 2 days and was one of the most bloodiest battle in the whole war. The first day the Confederates drove Grant and his troops all the way to the Tennessee river but the second day they recovered. The Union was aided by troops from Nashville and they defeated the Confederates. The losses were huge and both armies lost more than 20,000 people.  


Confederate general Johnston was among the dead.

General Grant led a surprise attack on the Union on April 6, 1862. 

Battle of Shiloh

When and Where did the battle take place? 

General Grant led a surprise attack on the Union on April 6, 1862. Memphis, Tennessee fell to the Union army on June 6 and now the north was well on there way to controlling the Mississippi River.

 

 

 

The Union barely won the battle of Shiloh, they gained control of Corinth on May 30.

Who won? 

What actually happened and why? 

Who was Involved?

 

 

 It was a much larger battle but took place on the same grounds as the Battle of the First Bull Run. The Union had about 77,000 soldiers compared to the 50,000 soldiers from the Confederates.

 

The battle was between the North and the South. It took place between Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's army of Northern Virginia and Union Maj.Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia. 

Battle of Second Bull Run

When and Where did the battle take place? 

The battle of the Second Bull Run lasted for 2 days, August 28-30 1862. It took place in William County, Virginia. 

 

 

 

 

The Union lost the battle and lost about 14,000 soldiers in the process. The Confederates only lost 7,000 people. Even though the Confederates had way less man power they were able to overcome the Union and pull out a victory.

 

 

 

Who won? 

What actually happened and why? 

Who was Involved?

 

 

This battle was the bloodiest day in US military history. Although the Union had many more people fighting for them Stone Wall Jackson would no budge. The Union was showing huge attacks but the Confederates were comming back with the same amount of huge counter- attacks. Union assaults against the Sunken Road would pierce the Confederate center after a terrible struggle for this key defensive position.

 

Generals Robert E. Lee and George McClellan faced off near Antietam creek in Sharpsburg, Maryland, in the the first battle of the American Civil War to be fought on northern soil

Battle of Antietam

When and Where did the battle take place? 

 September 17, 1862 the battle began. Robert E. Lee took on George B. McClellan. 

 

 

 

The battle ended incluclusive with no clear winner. Both sides lost a total of 22,000 soldiers in the war. 

 

 

 

Who won? 

What actually happened and why? 

Who was Involved?

This was the first major opposed river crossing in military history. The Union and Confederates fought on the streets on Fredricksburg, this was the first time a battle broke out in a highly populated town. This battle had 200,000 soliders and no other Civil War battle had this many people fighting. 

 

Ambrose F. Burnside led the Union in the battle against Robert E. Lee's Confederate soldiers. 

Battle of Fredricksburg

When and Where did the battle take place? 

The battle took place in Fredrickburg, Virgina on December 11-15 1862. 

 

 

 

In the end the Confederates ended up claiming the win for Fredricksburg. The confederates were outnumbered but ended up loosing only 4,576 people while the Union lost 13,353. 

 

 

 

Who won? 

What actually happened and why? 

Who was Involved?

Rather than retreat before this sizable Federal force, Lee opted to attack Hooker while he was still within the thick wilderness. The confederates decieded to take a risk and attack the Union when they were least expecting it. On May 2, the Confederates attacked. On May 3, Lee continued to push the Union into farther defensive line. 

 

The Union was led by Joseph Hooker. He led the Union against the Confedertes ran by Robert. E. Lee. 

Battle of Chancellorsville

When and Where did the battle take place? 

The battle took place in Spotsylvania County on  April 30 - May 6 ,1863. There was a total of 154, 734 soldiers fighting in this battle. 

 

 

 

In the end the Confederates ended up claiming the win for Chancellorville. This was one of the best wins for Lee in whole career. The Confederates did loose 13,460 people while the Union lost 17,304 people. 

 

 

 

Who won? 

What actually happened and why? 

Who was Involved?

 

 Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4,Vicksburg surrendered after prolonged siege operations.

Ulysses G. Grant was in charge of the Union army while John Pemnerton was in charge of the Confederates. 

Battle of Vicksburg

When and Where did the battle take place? 

The battle took place on May 18 and ended on July 4, 1863. It was in Warren County, Mississippi.

 

 

 

The Union got a win after surrounding the Confederates. The Union only lost 4,910 compared to the Confederates who lost 32,492 people. 

 

 

Who won? 

What actually happened and why? 

Who was Involved?

Lee awaited Meades army to aproach on Gettysburg. On July 1 Lee attacked the Union and pushed them back onto Iron Brigade. The next day Lee attacked again on the side parts of the Unions army. This lead into major smaller battles. Including  Devil's Den, Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Peach Orchard, Culp’s Hill and East Cemetery Hill. The Southerns were able to capture Devil's Den and Peach Orchard. Although they were able to capture these forts the Union army did not leave and failed to make them leave. On the third day the Union was able to capture all the land they had lost. Lee would not give up and attacked the Union main post in Cementary Ridge. This was Lees second atempt on capturing the Union in the North and it has failed. The Confederates lost 28,063 soliders in this battle.  

The Union was led by George B. Meade agaisnt the Confederates who were led by Robert E. Lee. 

Battle of Gettysburg

When and Where did the battle take place? 

 

It took place in Gettysburg, Penslyvania on July 1- 3 1863.  

 

The Union pulled out a big win in Pensylvania. They were able to regain all the land and stop the Confedertes. The Union lost 23,049 soldiers while the Confederates lost 28,063  

 

Who won? 

Surrender of Appomattox and Terms of Surrender

Robert E. Lee moved his army west trying to find some smaller Confederate force trying to stop Shermans advance. The Union heard of this and blocked his route. The Confederate were done. They were dropping like flies becuasue of the lack of supplies and hunger. After the captial of the Confederates fell, Richmond, all Confederate political people fled. Lees army had to chance in fighting and with no other option Lee surrendered.  On April 9, 1865 Lee and his troops surrendered to Grant in a Virginia village called Appomattox Court House. 

Grant was very kind when it came to the surrender. He allowed them to keep their horses and gave them food enough to last them for 3 days. Several days after Lees's surrender other Confederates surrendered. Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederates,  was captured in Georgia on May 10. The War is finally over. 

 Grant commanded the victorious Union army during the American Civil War. He also served as the 18th U.S.president from 1869 to 1877. Grant was a brave and agressive leader during the war. His main goal after the war was the Reconstruction. He wanted to help save all the newly freed black men and women. Grant was a very honest man and caused no problem. His office staff was not so honest and many of them became corrupt.

Ulysses S. Grant

Lincoln was elected to serve president during the Civil War. He made historical decisions. He pushed several Southern states to secede by the time of his inauguration in March 1861. He was very bold and created  Emancipation Proclamation. This paved the way for the abloshment of slavery. Right before the war was almost over Abe Lincoln was killed by a Confederate supporter. His death inspired many Union fighter to win the war. Lincoln is agruged the best president the United States has ever had.  

Abraham Lincoln

In order for kids to join the army you had to be 18 years or older. Many kids joined the army that were younger and served as drummer boys or bugle boys. The boys were not allowed to fight but it was not rare for them to jump into the fighting after it started. 


The Slaves were very loyal to their masters even in a time like this. There were two kinds of slaves. One is the type of slaves where they will run from the masters the chance they have. The other type is the ones that are loyal to their masters no matter what. They would defend their masters lands even when they were gone. 

With all the men gone at war the women had to take over all of the mens job. They worked on fields and on farms. Many times they were the main supporter of their families. Their older sons and husbands were often sent off to war. The women would also work as army nurses helping all the wounded. 

Life during the Civil War 

 

 

After the war, the South was left destroyed. After the South exports of cotton was shut down during the war Egytian and Indian exporters took over the cotton sales. The South was never able to come back and regain a solid state in the exporting buisness. 

After the North won the Civil War slavery was officaly abloished. Even though slavery was  now Illegal the North had no way of enforcing it in the South. Slavery went on for many more years and to totally get rid of it may take many many years. 

After they won they also proved that the country could be together as a Union and not a bunch of split states going under seperate laws. 

Results of the War

http://www.civilwar.org 

http://www.history.com/topics/war-of-1812

http://www.historynet.com/civil-war

http://www.countriesquest.com/north_america/usa/history/the_civil_war/results_of_the_civil_war.htm

http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/maai/emancipation/text5/text5read.htm

Bibliography