This book covers the beginning, causes, battles, and outcomes of the Civil War.

The Civil War

(civ*il war)

 Noun

 

      -the war between

 

 geolographical sections or 

 

political fraction of the same 

 

nation

 

By: Julia Keum

  • Abraham Lincoln
  • George B. McClellan
  • Ulysses S. Grant("Unconditional Surrender")
  • David Farragut
  • Major General John Pope
  • General William Tecumseh Sherman
  • larger population
  • more industry
  • more resources
  • better banking system for funds  
  • more ships
  • more efficient railroad system

Strength

The North 

The Leaders

VS

  • Ambrose Burnside
  • General George Meade
  • General Joseph Hooker
  • into unknown territory
  • strong reason to seceed from the Union
  • large hostile population with large land to cover

Weaknesses

  • Maine
  • New York
  • New Hamshire
  • Vermont
  • Massachusetts
  • Conneticut
  • Rhode Island
  • Pennsylvania

The Union States included:

 

Aims and Strategies 

  • Slavery (later in the war)
  • Blockading the Southern ports stoping supplies and exporting cotton
  • Gain control of the Mississippi River to divide the Confederate and supply system
  • take control of the capital in Richmond, Virginia

States  

  • New Jersey
  • Ohio
  • Indiana
  • Illinios
  • Kansas
  • Michiagan
  • Wisconson
  • Minnesota
  • Iowa
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Oregon
  • military leadership
  • fighting in familiar territory and defending their land and rights
  • strong reason to seceed 
  • Jefferson Davis
  • General Thomas Jackson ("Stonewall" Jackson)
  • Robert E. Lee
  • General George Pickett

Strength

The South 

The Leaders

VS

  • smaller population to draw free men into the military
  • less factories
  • produces less produce and supplies for the soldiers
  • half of the railroad tracks than what the North had
  • difficulty transporting supplies

Weaknesses

The Confederate states include: 

States  

  • South Carolina
  • Texas
  • Louisiana
  • Mississippi
  • Alabama

Aims and Strategies 

  • Win recognition of as an independent nation
  • defensive strategy to protect their land and their ways of living
  • wait until France of Britain to help
  • make the Union tired of war
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Arkansas
  • Virginia
  • Tennesee
  • North Carolina
  • slavery arrived in America in the 1700s, and for 250 years it was legal
  • the South used more slavery for the booming cotton industry
  • the sides of the North and the South had arguments politically in slavery and keeping the balance
  • four candidates: Abraham Lincoln from the Republican Party, Stephen A. Douglas from the Northern Democrats, John C. Breckinridge from the Southern Democrats, and John Bell from the Constitutional Union Party
  • most of the Southern States didn't included Abraham Lincoln in their ballots
  • Lincoln won the election because of the population difference
  •  few weeks after Abraham Lincoln got elected, South Carolina was the first to leave
  • the Southern states couldn't stand that he was president and 7 states already seceeded when his inauguration
  • After more secessions, the states of Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and North Carolina were known as the Confederate States  of America
  • Jefferson Davis as their president

Causes of the War

Secession

The Peculiar Institution (Slavery)

Election of 1860

Kansas-Nebraska Act 

  • a new act in 1854 that overturned the Missouri Compromise usage of the 36 degrees30 North latitude determining the state free or slave
  • popular sovereignty was used for the residents to determine the final choice
  • series of violent political confrontation in the United States involving anti-slavery, Free-Staters, and proslavery that had "Border Ruffians" how crossed the border to change the outcome of the votes
  • pro- and anti-slavery people flooded in and began to turn violent

Bleeding Kansas

  • On December 26th, Anderson moved his 85 Union troops to Fort Sumter for the safety of his men
  • Just after President Abraham Lincoln's inauguration, Anderson reported that he needed more supplies
  • the Confederate soldiers stationed around them were growing tired of waiting
  • Gen. Beauregard demanded surrender to Maj. Anderson on April 11th

The Battle of Fort Sumter 

  •  The first shot of the Civil War was shot from the Confederate 4:30 on the morning of April 12th, 1861
  • the Confederate forces open fired on Fort Sumter and continued for 34 hours
  • around 7 am in the morning, Union Capt. Doubleday shot the first shot from the Union in defense of the fort
  • The fort flag was on the ground and lieutenant Norman J. Hall bravely put the flag back up
  • on April 13, Anderson surrended the fort and no soldiers were killed in the battle
  • they were allowed to do a 100-gun salute at 2 pm on April 14th, but was cut short because an accidental explosion

 What Happened

Why

  • April 12-14th, 1861
  • started 4:30 in the morning
  • surendered on April 13th 
  • Union did a 50-gun salute on April 14th which ended the battle
  • Major Robert Anderson
  • Captain Abner Doubleday
  • about 80 Union soldiers

 When

North

  • the Union surrendered Fort Sumter 
  • there were no casualties on either side which was really lucky
  • the only death was in the gun salute where one soldier was killed and one soldier was wounded in an accidental event
  • even though it was a loss for the Union, the soldiers were greeted as heroes

Outcome

  • Fort Sumter-off of the Mouth of Charleston Harbor
  • Made on a man-made island off of the Charleston Harbor with Sullivan's Island, Chareston, James Island, and Morris Island surrounding them with Confederate soldiers

Where

  • General P.G.T. Beauregard
  • about 500 Confederate soldiers

South

The Battle of First Bull Run

  •  the Confederate army planned to outflank the Union army
  • the Union defended and planned to go around their flanks and suprise them
  • during the battle, the cannons and forces were overwhelmed by the Confederate 
  • the Confederates had more reinforcements in the battle ground
  • the Union soldiers had to retreat back to Washington
  • Birg. Gen. Irvin McDowell
  • General Robert Patterson
  • about 28,450 Union Soldiers

Outcome

  • the Union was driven back and it was the Confederate's win
  • the Union army went back to the safety Washington 
  • the Confederates couldn't pursue the Union army because they were unorganized
  • In the Union there were a total of 460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 missing or captured
  • On the Confederate side, in total 387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing or captured
  • There was a total estimated causualty of 4,878 on both sides

What Happened

North

  • Morning of July 21st, 1861
  • on July 22nd, the Union army retreated to Washington

When

Why 

  • Lincoln wanted to push the Union army to the Confederate Capital, Richmond
  • wanted to take the bulk of the Confederate Army out to clear out a path to their capital
  • General Irvin McDowell was overly cautious of his army and was pushed to make a move
  • Virginia, a couple of mile away from Washington
  • Bull Run, Shenandoah Valley, Manassas Junction, Henry Hill

Where

  • Joseph E. Johnston 
  • General P.G.T. Beauregard "Jeb" Stuart
  • Colonel James Ewell Brown 
  • Colonel Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
  • about 32,230 Confederate soldiers

South

 Battle of Fort Donelson

  • gunships came in and easy took control of Forts Heiman and Henry on Feb. 6th
  •  the Union tried to capture Fort Donelson but were delayed becuase of the weather
  • the Confederate retreated seeing the amount of soldiers
  • they engaged conbat seeing that the Confederates had to fight their way to their freedom
  • The Union flanked to the Confederates right to find the weakened forces while their right side was strong
  • the Confederates srurrended on the 16th of February and Grant wanted unconditional surrender

What happened

  • Andrew Hull Foote
  • Ulysses S. Grant (Unconditional Surrender)
  • Brig. Gen. John McClernand
  • Brig. Gen. Lew Wallace
  • Henry Halleck
  • about 24,531 soldiers

North 

When

  • the gunboats captured Fort Heiman and Henry on February 6th
  •  February 11th, April 1862 the main battle began 
  • the battle ended on February 16th with a surrender
  • The Union took control of the land with the forts  off of the Kentucky border 
  • they got control of the lower Tennessee River
  • secured a path towards Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama
  • there were a total of 2,691 casualties on the Union with 507 killed, 1,976 wounded, and 208 missing or captured
  • there was a total of 13,846 casualties on the Confederate with 372 killed, 1,127 wounded, and 12,392 missing or captured

Why

  • along the boder of Tennessee, the Cumberland Rivers, South of the Kentucky border
  • Forts Henry, Heiman, And Donelson 
  • Kentucky had agreed with staying with the Union
  • the Confederate had to secure their position along the border of their enemy
  • They had to protect that land that was crucial to the war

Where

  • Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston
  • Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd
  • Lt. Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Brig. Gen. Gideon Pillow
  • Brig. Gen. Simon B. Buckner 
  • about 16, 171 soldiers

South

 Battle of Hampton Roads

  • CSS Virginia left its berth on March 8th and attacked the USS Cumberland at around 2pm
  • USS Cumberland sank after CSS Virginia rammed into them
  • the Virginia next went for USS Congress
  • USS Congress went to shallow waters to protect itself, but the Virginia fired and lowered its flag in surrender
  • on the night of Marth 8th, the Union dispatched to USS Monitor
  • the Virginia was now chasing USS Minnesota while the USS Monitor was bearing down on the Virginia
  • the Virginia changed targets and attacked the Monitor and during the exchanged fire, the Virginia had a had time of sinking the Monitor because of its nibmler size
  • the Monitor then headed for shallower waters while the Virginia returned to bay because of the lowering tide and for more ammunition 
  • Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan
  • Lt. John L.. Worden
  • USS Cumberland
  • USS Congress
  • USS Monitor
  • USS Minnesota
  • about 1,400 Union soldiers
  • March 8th, 1862
  • to March 9th, 1862 

What happened

North 

When

Outcome

  • the battle was left a stalemate from both of the main ships leaving the battle
  • this was a major change in the history of navel battle and changed the designs for many of the ships to come
  • there were a total of 261 casualties on the Union side where 261 were killed, 108 wounded, and an unknown number of missing or captured
  • there were a total of 24 casualties on the Confederate side where there were 7 killed, 17 wounded, an unknown number of missing or captured

Why

  • ironclad CSS Virginia left without authorization to attack Union ships
  • part of the Confederate's plan to break throught the blockade that the North made with their navy

Where

  • Franklin Buchanan
  • Catesby Jones
  • CSS Virginia
  • about 188 Confederate soldiers
  • Newport News
  • Hampton Roads 
  • Hampton Bay

South

The Battle of Shiloh

  • 4am on the morning of April 6th
  • ended on the 7th of April

When

What Happened

North 

  • General Grant's forces were stationed at Pittsburg and had troops stationed around as well
  • Johnston not taking the chances of more Union forces attacked with the element of suprise at 4am on the morning of April 6th
  • Grant retreated to Pittsburg Landing to form a defence line with part of his troops surrounded in the "Hornet's Nest"
  • during the battle, Johnston was severely injured and bled to death leaving command to Beauregard
  • Grant's forces united with forces of Buell from Ohio and attack on on the morning of April 7th, pushing the Confederates back
  • Outnumbered, Beauregard retreated back to Fort Corinth

Outcome

  • General Grant
  • William Nelson
  • Major General Don Carlos Buell
  • about 65,000 Union soldiers
  • The Union won the battle
  • the Union had a total of 13,050 casualties with 1,755 killed, 8,410 wounded, and 2,900 missing or captured
  • the Confederates had a total of 10,670 casualties with 1,730 killed, 8,012 wounded, and 960 missing or captured
  • It was the bloodiest battle in American history
  • two miles off of Fort Cornith
  • the Unions are attacked while stationed at Pittsburg Landing
  • the battle moves near the Tenneessee River, Peach Orchards, and "Hornet's Nest"

Where

  • Johnston wanted to take the chance to recover Tennessee and protect the land before more of the Union soldiers arrived
  • to protect Cornith which was a big transportation area for the Confederates
  • Johnston took the element of suprise

Why

  • General Albert Sidney Johnston
  • General P.G.T. Beauregard
  • about 45,000 Confederate soldiers

South

The Battle of Second Bull Run

  • Jackson was sent to occupy Pope's force on Ceder Mountain
  • Lee moved Longstreet to Jackson's side to take most of the Union army out before McCellan arrived
  • Jackson cut Pope from their supplies
  • the Pope wanted to take Jackson's forces out and repeatedly attacked him at the unfinished railroads
  • On April 30th, Pope thought that the Confederates were retreating and started to pursue the Confederates
  • during the pursue, Pope encountered a large counter attack from the Confederates and almost had nowhere to go
  • the Union retreated from the battle in a disarray with the Confederates in their pursuit
  • General George B. McCellan
  • General John Pope
  • Fritz John Porter 
  • John Hatch
  • about 70,000 soldiers

North 

  • on August 9th, Pope's army and Jackson's army clashed at Cedar Mountain
  • August 28th, the major battle began and ended on August 30th

When

What Happened

Outcome

  • the Confederates won the battle and they were able to make a path to invade into the North
  • the Union had a total of 13,825 casualties with 1,716 killed, 8,215 wounded, and 3,895 missing or captured
  • the Confederates had a total of 8,353 casualties with 1,305 killed, 7,050 wounded, and an unknown number of missing or captured
  •  Lincoln administration had chosen Pope to protect Washington and attacking northwest of Richmond to take some pressure off of McCellan's force
  • General Robert E. Lee saw that as a treat to the capital and war and sent Jackson to defend

Why

  • Ceder Mountain 
  • Rappahannock
  • Bristoe Station
  • Groveton

Where

  • General Robert E. Lee
  • General T.J. "Stonewall" Jackson
  • James Longstreet 
  • about 55,000 soldiers
  • Brawner Farm
  • Henry Hill
  • Chinn Ridge
  • Ox Hill

South

  • the Confederates came into Maryland and started taking the forts
  • when Lee knew that McClellan was comming, he chose a spot of his choice to fight
  • Lee spread his soldiers out wide while the Union planned to attack him from the left, then right, then in the middle to finish it off
  • the Union had a hard time in the location that they were fighting on because they had the lower ground
  • a corp was pushed back at West Woods for the Union
  • the distraction in Lee's left flank worked and the Union started to cross the bridge on the right flank
  • the men from Harpers Ferry arrive for the Confederates and they save Lee from a close defeat
  • this allowed the Confederates to draw back and retreat into Virginia

What Happened

When

The Battle of Antietam

  • September 16th, 1862
  • to September 18th, 1862 
  • Major General George B. McClellan
  • Major General Joseph Hooker 
  • Major General Ambrose Burnside
  • about 87,000 soldiers

North 

  • The battle was an inconcusive battle between the Union and the Confederates
  • the Union had a total of 12,401 casualties where 2,110 are killed, 9,540 are wounded, and 755 are missing or captured
  • the Confederates had a total of 10,316 casualites with 1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, and 1,018 missing or captured
  • this battle was the single most bloodiest battle in American history
  • this battle was also viewed as a Union victory when it was a draw and allowed Linclon to announce the Emancipation Proclaimation to change the view and outcome of the war

Outcome

  • the Confederates marched into Maryland after what happened in the Second Bull Run
  • the Union comes into fight the Confederates to defend their capital and land

Why

  • Maryland
  • Miller's cornfield
  • West Woods

Where

  • General Robert E. Lee
  • "Stonewall" Jackson
  • about 45,000 soldiers

South

 

  • Dunker Church
  • Antietam Creek
  • the Sunken Roads

 

  • the Unions follow Burnside's new plan to capture the Confederates and moves with the platoons in the call
  • the platoons are late and the Union loses their element of suprise
  • when the platoons finally arrive, the Confederates have soldiers on the other side of the river and delay them from crossing the river
  • when the Union finally crosses the river, they have to make it throught the small urban roads to make it in range of fire
  • the Confederates with Jackson's command holds steady wave after wave from the Union
  • after many tries on the defence line of the Confederates, the Union falls back from the loss of thousands of soldiers
  • December 11th to the 15th, 1862 
  • Major General William B. Franklin
  • Ambronse E. Burnside 
  • about 100,010 soldiers

The Battle of Fredericksburg

What Happened

North 

When

Why

Outcome

  • the battle ended in a Confederate's victory
  • the Union had a total of 13,353 casualties with an unknown count of killed, wounded, and missing or captured
  • the Confederates had a total of 4,576 casualties with an unknown count of killed, wounded, and missing or captured
  • Ambrose Burnside resigned, devestates by his failure and was replace by Joseph Hooker in the Union ranks
  • this was the largest battle in American history and the first urban fight in the Civil War
  • pressure from the cabinets of Lincoln made the attack happen
  • Lincoln wanted Burnside to follow McClellan's plan, but he refused and followed his own plan
  •  Burnside moved accordingly to his plan to Fredricksburg

Where

  • the street of Fredericksburg
  • Prospect Hill
  • Marye's Heights 
  • "Stonewall" Jackson
  •  Robert E. Lee
  • about 72,450 soldiers

South

  • April 30th to May 6th of 1862
  •  Hooker was postitioned 70 square miles around Chancellor
  • when Lee's army was positioned, Jackson went behind the Union army and attacked Hooker's right flank and rear
  • that pushed the Union back two miles
  • when Jackson was attacking, he was mistakenly shot on his left arm by his own men
  • Hooker moved out and gave the crucial high ground to the Confederates and they pushed ahead
  • while Hooker had gained the Chancellorsville clearing, their rear was threatened
  • Hooker retreated and crossed the Rappahannock River

What Happened

The Battle of Chancellorville

  • Joseph Hooker 
  • Colonel Burbank
  • General Skyes
  • about 97,382 soldiers

When

North 

Outcome

  • Lincoln wanted to end the war as soon as possibel
  • Hooker proposed a plan that he thought would work
  • Hooker trained the army and was in good condition 

Why

  • the battle was a Confederate victory
  • the Union had a total of 17,304 casualties with 1,694 killed, 9,672 wounded, and 5,938 missing or captured
  • the Confederates had a total of 13,460 casualties in total with 1,724 killed, 9,233 wounded, and 2,503 missing or captured
  • the Confederates had lost Jackson, a very valuable leader in the fight when he was shot by his own men
  • Jackson died a week after his arm was amputated off 

Where

  • Virginia
  • Chancellorville
  • Rappahannock
  • Robert E. Lee 
  • "Stonewall" Jackson
  • General Richard H. Anderson
  • General Lafayette McLaws
  • about 57,352 soldiers

South

  • Turnpike
  • Plank Road 

North 

  1. Grant tried many different ways to get to Vicksburg on land and water
  2. Grant made a plan to distract the Confederates with a calvary raid, ironclad boats at Fort Grand Gulf, and an attack on Vicksburg
  3. Grant, with those distractions crossed his main army into Confederate land through Bruinsburg
  4. Grant encounters a Confederate brigade and wins the battle at Port Gibson
  5. Grant's plan was to cut off the supplies and communication systems in the surrounding area of Vicksburg to win the battle 
  6. his plan works as the Union brigades cut off the telegram lines and won the battle at Mississippi's capital Jackson
  7. Grant takes his men to the Southern railroad system to cut off the Confederate sources and suceeds in winning the battle at Champion Hill
  8. the rest of the Confederates that got away goes back to Vicksburg to defend
  9. On May 19th, Grant starts to attack ourter fortifications of Vicksburg. Grant loses many soldiers trying to get in
  10. While the attacks are going on, the condition inside of Vicksburg isn't good. Food, water, and medicine are getting scarce while diseases spread
  11. under these condition, Pemberton surrenders on July 4th and helps seal off the supply system

When

What Happened

  1. May 8th to July 4th, 1863 
  1. Ulysses S. Grant
  2. Army of the Tenneessee 
  3. a group of ironclads conducted by Admiral David Porter
  4. about 77,000 soldiers

Assult on Vicksburg

Outcome

  • Pemberton surrenders and the Union wins Vicksburg
  • the Union has a total of 4,910 casualties with 804 killed, 3,940 wounded, and 164 missing or captured
  • the Confederates have a total of 32,492 casualties with 805 killed, 1,938 wounded, and 29,620 missing or captured
  • the Union winning this battle hels win the war and cuts off the supplies and lands of the confederates

Where

Why

  1. Vicksburg was a crucial transportating system in the Confederatcey
  2. it fed the soldiers with transporting goods and ammunition through the river tributaries
  3. Lincoln saw taking the last two forts on the Mississippi River under the Confederate's control as a key in winning the Civil War
  1. along the Mississippi River between Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana
  2. Bruinsburg
  3. Champion Hill
  4. Big Black Bridge 
  1. John Pemberton 
  2. Joseph E. Johnston
  3. about 33,000 soldiers

South

  • Maj. General Joseph Hooker
  • Maj. General George Gordon Meade
  • Brig. General John Buford 
  • about 93,921 soldiers
  • the battle started west of Gettysburg
  • Buford and Heth collide in the battle with many other of each side joining
  • the Union is overwhelmed and falls back in Cemetery Hill
  • the Union regroups in a formation shaped like a fishhook where they are in an advantage
  • Lee plans to attack the Union on all sides 
  • the Union and Confederates change off sides of the outcome of the battle at the Devil's Den, Little Round Top, and the Peach Ochards
  • the Union stops fighting on their left flank as the Confederate soldiers are tired
  • Ewell defends from Culps Hill
  • Lee then plans an attacks the center of the Union forces and Meade anticipates that move and gets ready
  • Meade fired artillary and forms his army to made a big bowl shape and the Confederates are trapped
  • less than half of Lee's men return from the attack
  • Lee tries to attack Meade again, but fails and retreats

The Battle of Gettysburg

  • July 1st to July 3rd, 1863 

What Happened

When

North 

  • the Unions win the Battle of Gettysburg
  • the Union has a total of 23,049 casualties with 3,155 killed, 14,529 wounded, and 5,365 missing or captured
  • the Confederates had a total of 28,063 casualties with 3,903 killed, 18,735 wounded, and 5,425 missing or captured
  • this was one of the bloodiest battles of the civil war

Outcome

Why

  • Hooker's army had been pursuing Lee's army
  • Lee had a plan to collect supplies from Pennsylvania and threaten the Northern cities
  • Meade took command and blocked Lee from Pennsylvania 
  • the armies clashed outside of Gettysburg

South

  • Robert E. Lee
  •  Richard Ewell
  • General George Pickett
  • about 71,700 soldiers

Where

  • Cemetery Hill
  • Culp's Hill
  • just outside of Gettysburg 
  • Grant and his men planned to cut off Lee's army and circling him
  • Longstreet's troops were pressed by the Union and Lee retreated to Appomattox River
  • after a few more resistances, Lee surrendered
  • April 9th, 1865 
  • Ulysses S. Grant
  • about 63,285 soldiers

When 

What Happened

North 

Surrender at Appomattox 

  • Lee surrenders as a Union victory
  • the surrender of the Confederate army in Appomattox is a milestone for the Union and many more surrenders to come
  • the terms of the surrender were generous and allowed the men to go back to their families with food and a horse to get ready for the upcoming winter
  • the Union soldiers weren't allowed to overly celebrate of taunt the Confederates
  • this surrender served as a blueprint for the future surrenders of the Confederate armies

Outcome

and Terms of Surrender

  • battle from the Gettysburg 
  • Lincoln pushed Grant in ending the war

Why 

Where

  • Appomattox River
  • New Hope Church
  • Robert E. Lee
  • General Bryan Grimes
  • about 26,000 soldiers 

South 

  • born in Point Pleasant, Ohio on April 27th 1822
  • his original name was Hiram Ulysses Grant, but due to error while attending the United States Military Academy, his name was changed to Ulysses S. Grant
  • he finished 26th out of his class of 39 as a mediocre student
  • his first war was the Mexican War where he performed well and won two citations for gallantry and one for meritorious conduct
  • when the war was over, he was assigned to monotonous duties away from his family and got into the habbit of drinking heavily
  • he ressigned from his service to aviod being kick out of his service
  • Grant spent his time with his family and wife over the next 6 years and worked as a farmer and a store clerk for his family business
  • when the Civil War began, he took the first opportunity to volunteer
  • his first command was the 21st Illinois Infantry, but he was quickly promoted to brigadier general in July 1861 and in September was given the command of the District of Southeast Missouri
  • his nickname "Unconditional Surrender" Grant was given in 1862 for his victories at Fort Henry and Donelson 
  • after the Battle of Shoiloh, people asked him to be removed because of the number of casualties, but President Lincoln said, "I can't spare this man. He fights."
  • Grant's victory at Vicksburg, Mississippi of May, 1863 was a great success and was the turning point of the war
  • he captured Lee's army at Appomattox Court 
  • Grant build his reputation as a strong leader and was named Secretary of War over the reunited nation
  • He later served the nation as President for two terms and finished an autobiography before he died a few days later at the age of sixty-three because of cancer

Ulysses S. Grant

                                                                         General-In-Chief

Life Events in Chonological Order

  • In The Battle of Vicksburg, his strategy was a great succeess that led the turning point of the Civil War
  • The strategy of cutting off the supplies and communication systems are still used today in modern wars
  • He used many different groups of his army to distract, divide, and conquer the area of land the Confederates were defending
  • in the Battle of Chattanooga, he also used a good strategic plan to surround the Confederates and make then surrender

Highlights of His Life 

  • Born on January 21st, 1824 in Clarksburg, Virginia
  • he graduated from West Point in 1846 and was a brevet second lieutenant in the Mexican American War and met Robert E. Lee
  • During the Mexican-American War, he recieved a rank of a major after showing successful shows in leadership
  • in 1851, Jackson resigns from the millitary and starts teaching at Virginia Military Insitute in Lexington, Virginia
  • when the war starts, he took orders and commanded at Haper's Ferry
  • During the battle of The First Manassas/The First Bull Run, he earned his nickname of "Stonewall" Jackson
  • Jackson planned and carried out many successful maneuvers at Front Royal, Winchester, Cross Keys, and Port Republic
  • he gained popularity as he showed many different strategies and plans in the Second Manassas and in Sharpsburg in the Battle of Antietam
  • Jackson also led a victory at Fredericksburg during the flank march at Chancellorsville

  •  On the same day of his victory, he was shot by friendly fire and had to amputate his left arm

  • he died 8 days later on May 10th with his wife and daughter
  • he is buried in Lexington, Virginia

Life Events in Chonological Order

Thomas Jonathan Jackson 

                                                                                                                "Stonewall" Jackson

Highlights of His Life

  • his teaching style at Virginia Military Institute was contriversal, but valuable and VMI uses many of his philosophies
  • he earned his nickname in the First Bull Run from defending his position with the Confederates
  • many young boys enlisted for the Civil War that were under the age of 19
  • they were there to support the elderly and learn why they were fighting
  • many of the boys in the armies served as dummerboys, buglers, and " powder monkeys" which were essential to the armies
  • many children were starving in the South from the food shortage
  • many of the children left for work instead of going to school to support their families
  • children in the south who had lived near battlefields were ophans 
  • children in the south supported the army by making home goods and collecting herbs for medicine
  •  the soldiers had a rough life in the army
  • a soldier's life was often filled with boring drills, bad food, marches, and rain
  • many of the soldiers described how they felt in the army as boredom, discomfort, sickness, fear and horror
  • the only pleasent moments in the war was when they were living in the camps and sung songs, told stories, read letters from home, and play baseball
  • the Confederate soldiers were often hungry from the shortage of food from trading overseas 
  • the medical faculties in the war were always overcrowded with soldiers waiting in the rain for more than 24 hours to get treatment

Children During the War

A Soldier's Life

Life During the Civil War

  • the women in the Civil War had lost a many of bothers, fathers, husbands, and sons
  • they had the chance of filling their role of being teachers and office workers
  • many of the women did anything they could do to help the armies including providing blankets, food, clothing, raised money, and made ammunition
  • The women who stayed home was also effected. In the North, their lives were little distubed, but in the South it was a different story
  • In the South, everyday things became scarce because of the port blockade that the North put up
  • some women served as spies for the North or South
  • at first, the doctors thought that women were too fagile to serve as nuses, but many strong-minded and determined women served as nurses on the battle field
  • One nurse, Kate Cummings of Alabama, wrote,"Nothing that I had ever heard or read had given me the faintest idea pf the horrors witnessed here."
  • african americans in the South had little change during the war
  • many of the slaves started to escape towards the North when the Emancipation Proclaimation was announced by President Lincoln
  • the free and escaped slaves who were willing to volunteer made up the Black Dispatches, spy community for the Union 
  • slaves weren't used as soldiers in the south until the last couple of months
  • slaves that participated in the Civil War in the Union made up 10%  of the whole Union army

African Americans

Women and War

  • President Lincoln was assasinated on April 14th in Ford's Theature by John Wilkes Booth while attending a play
  • his death caused a huge shock to the nation and they grieved for him
  • Johnson had to address the problems of admitting and rebuilding the south and the laws of slavery
  • Johnson didn't follow the less severe plan that Lincoln planned for the southern states before his death, instead he wanted them to swear full loyalty to the Union
  • the High-ranking or wealthy Confederates needed to appeal to the president
  • Johnson wanted to humiliate the wealthy Confederates that convinced the southerners to join and fight in the war
  • Johnson only wanted white men to vote among the free black slaves
  • Johnson also proposed a Reconstuction Plan where the Confederates were accepted back into the Union and the how the building process should proceed in the South
  • more than 600,000 soldiers died
  • the war caused billions of dollars in damage mostly in the South
  • about two-thirds of the transporation system was in ruins along with many bridges and railroads
  • most of the damage was in the southern part of the nation as most of the battle took place in 
  • many of the soldiers from the Confederate army return home to find a ruined landscape
  • the Southerners and Northerners had a bitter feeling between them
  • after the Civil War, the government had many questions about how the southern states should be accepted into the Union

Results of the War

Andrew Johnson and The Arising Problems

Casualties of the War