The Extended Project Qualification
The Extended Project Qualification
CHAPTER 1 - Overview In order to grasp the overall structure of the EPQ, it is useful to see the main elements, in a diagram that is broadly chronological. Step 1. Consider, choose and enhance tools & skills • • • • • Time management Data management Researching tools Analysing data Communication skills Step 2. Research and decide on a title • • • • Early brainstorming Considered research Reviewing feasibilities Refining title ideas Step 3. Plan the main work and dissertation • • • • Decide on timescales Methods of research and management Sources of information Plan the dissertation structure Step 4. Research, analyse, conclude and write the dissertation • • • • Gather the information Constantly analyse and review appropriateness Synthesise the information to satisfy project aims Write and format the dissertation Step 5. Look back and review the process and selfdevelopment • Reflect on the process in the presentation • Complete review section in the log
CHAPTER 1 - Overview In order to grasp the overall structure of the EPQ, it is useful to see the main elements, in a diagr...
CHAPTER 2 - Timeline Work for the EPQ starts early in the autumn term in the L6. Assuming sufficient pace has been maintained, and the summer vacation is used profitably, the work should be completed by the end of September in the U6. After a small presentation event, the final submission would be sent in time for the November deadline. Two periods a week in the L6 is given to the EPQ, as well as the first six or seven weeks in the U6. If the November deadline is not reached, then the work can be submitted in the spring of the U6 instead. The following table sets out a rough guide to timings, though, for many reasons, students will make progress at different rates. The timings are to be considered the latest possible. Form ideas, research, decide on working title autumn Project proposal meeting (approval given) Decide on sources Planning meeting Extract findings from sources spring Mid-project meeting summer + vacation + September Write dissertation End of Project meeting & Presentation meeting October
CHAPTER 2 - Timeline Work for the EPQ starts early in the autumn term in the L6. Assuming sufficient pace has been maintai...
Starting autumn term L6 By mid-October Group sessions; introduction, skills practice. Establishing working techniques. Initial title considerations and research, and individual discussions on progress in choosing a project title, leading towards a firm idea, then… Continue research for title and probable sources and methods. When ready to meet formally with your supervisor … Around half term At the meeting discuss your Part A Candidate Proposal form. Afterwards, attend to any suggestions from your supervisor and … … complete the Record of Initial Ideas page in Log - inform supervisor. … complete Part A Candidate Proposal in Log – inform supervisor and arrange meeting. … finalise Part A Candidate Proposal in Log – inform supervisor. Once the Proposal is approved, start work on planning how you are going to gather your data – sources, methods, potential challenges, and timings. When you think you have finished the planning … Around end of term Spring term & Summer term Before the end of the summer term At the meeting discuss your Planning Review. Afterwards, attend to any suggestions from your supervisor and … Now you can start gathering your findings. During the spring and summer terms the aim is to gather as much of your evidence as possible. You will also probably want to start organising your thoughts, in anticipation of starting to write the dissertation. You should be thinking about what chapter structure of your dissertation best fits the topic and the nature of your evidence and likely conclusion. The actual timings will depend on what exams you have at the start of the year and in the summer term. The Key Skills sessions may not resume after the summer exams, but before the end of the summer term … At the meeting discuss your Mid-Project Review. Afterwards, attend to any suggestions from your supervisor and … Now you can start writing your dissertation in earnest. … complete Planning Review in Log – inform supervisor and arrange meeting. … finalise Planning Review in Log – inform supervisor. … complete Mid-Project Review in Log – inform supervisor and arrange meeting. … finalise Mid-Project Review in Log – inform supervisor.
Starting autumn term L6 By mid-October  Group sessions  introduction, skills practice. Establishing working techniques. In...
During summer vacation Early in autumn term U6 Complete bulk of dissertation (findings, resources list and validation, conclusions). Complete a draft copy of the dissertation, send to your supervisor, and … At the meeting discuss your Project Product Review. Afterwards, attend to any suggestions from your supervisor and … By end of September By end of second week in October By end of penultimate week of half term … complete Project Product Review in Log – inform supervisor and arrange meeting. … finalise Project Product Review in Log – inform supervisor. Finish the dissertation in light of the Project Product Review meeting, and … … submit a copy to your supervisor, … start the Summary and Reflection in the Log, … complete Presentation Record Part A in the Log – inform supervisor. Prepare posters for Presentation Evening, and … … present poster files to your supervisor. Presentation Evening, at which explain and show proposed posters and possible artefacts, papers, etc. Check all parts of the Log, and … … complete Summary and Reflection in Log – inform supervisor.
During summer vacation Early in autumn term U6  Complete bulk of dissertation  findings, resources list and validation, co...
CHAPTER 3 - Assessment Your ‘attainment’ in the EPQ is based on the process, rather than the outcome. In terms of assessment, one can treat the dissertation and its conclusion merely as vehicles, there only to allow the skills to be displayed. The following chart may help: Action • Choose title • Plan and research • Write dissertation • Give presentation Skills • • • • • • The actual title, conclusions, or quality of presentation are not assessed. Planning Tools Researching Analysing Presenting Synthesising Evidence for assessment • Supervisor's notes • AQA Log • Dissertation • Presentation The assessment is on the skills.
CHAPTER 3 - Assessment Your    attainment    in the EPQ is based on the process, rather than the outcome. In terms of asse...
The Learning Outcomes and their assessment There are four main Learning Outcomes of the EPQ, as detailed in the table below. 1. Project management Identify, design, plan and complete an individual project, applying a range of organisational skills and strategies to meet agreed objectives. 3. Realising the Project Select and use a range of skills, including new technologies where appropriate, solve problems, take decisions critically, creatively and flexibly, to achieve planned outcomes. 2. Using resources Obtain, critically select and use select information from a range of sources; analyse data, apply it relevantly and demonstrate understanding of any appropriate linkages, connections and complexities of the topic. 4. Reviewing the Project Evaluate outcomes both in relation to agreed objectives and own learning and performance. Select and use a range of communication skills and media to present evidenced outcomes and conclusions in appropriate format. The four Learning Outcomes are assessed by four corresponding Assessment Objectives. All assessment is done by the supervisor, using evidence taken from any part of the EPQ work, including the presentation event. In each of these AOs, as shown in this table, there are three bands of marks. On assessment, students are initially judged to be in one of the three bands, and will be awarded the lowest mark in that band; the supervisor then looks for strong and clear evidence to support elevating the mark to one of the two or three levels above that base mark. Assessment Objectives Band AO1 Manage 7 – 10 marks     Identify the topic. Identify project aims and objectives. Produce a project plan. Complete the work applying organisational skills and strategies to meet stated objectives. AO2 Use resources     Obtain and select from a variety of resources. Analyse data. Apply information relevantly. Demonstrate understanding of appropriate links. 4–6 marks 1–3 marks 7 – 10 marks 4–6 marks 1–3 marks Assessment Criteria Clear identification of the topic to be investigated or researched and clear evidence of appropriate aims and objectives for the proposed project title. Detailed project plan, with clear evidence of monitoring progress of project work against the agreed objectives. Some identification of the topic to be investigated or researched and some evidence of appropriate aims and objectives for the proposed project title. Project plan, with some evidence of monitoring progress of project work against the agreed objectives. Limited identification of the topic to be investigated or researched and limited evidence of appropriate aims and objectives for the proposed project title. Brief project plan, with little evidence of monitoring progress of project work against the agreed objectives. Evidence of detailed research involving the selection and evaluation of a wide range of relevant resources. Critical analysis and application of the resources with clear links made to appropriate theories and concepts. Evidence of some research involving the selection and evaluation of a range of relevant resources. Some analysis and application of the research, with links made to appropriate theories and concepts. Evidence of limited research involving limited selection and evaluation of resources. Little or no analysis and application of the resources with few links made to appropriate theories and concepts.
The Learning Outcomes and their assessment There are four main Learning Outcomes of the EPQ, as detailed in the table belo...
Assessment Objectives Band AO3 Develop and Realise     Problem-solving. Decision-making. Creative thinking. To achieve planned outcomes. 14 – 20 Marks 7 – 13 Marks 1–6 marks AO4 Review    Communication skills. Convey and present evidenced outcomes and conclusions. Evaluate own learning and performance. 7 – 10 marks 4–6 marks 1–3 marks Assessment Criteria Candidates take appropriate decisions and appropriate data is collected and thoroughly analysed. The project plan is fully implemented and the outcome is fully realised to a high standard and consistent with a candidate’s finally agreed plan. There is clear evidence of appropriate changes to, or development of, the initial project plan or title or aims and objectives, with clear and appropriate reasons for any changes. Candidates communicate their findings fluently in an appropriate format, synthesising information from a variety of sources and present them within a logical and coherent structure which addresses closely the nature of the task. Candidates take decisions and some appropriate data is collected and adequately analysed. The project plan is implemented and the outcome is sufficiently realised to an acceptable standard and consistent with a candidate’s finally agreed plan. There is some evidence of appropriate changes to, or development of, the initial project plan or title or aims and objectives, with reasons for any changes. Candidates communicate clearly their findings, showing some ability to synthesise information from different sources and present them in a structured manner appropriate for the task. Candidates take few decisions and a little data is insufficiently analysed. The project plan is implemented in a limited way and the outcome is realised in a limited manner and not always consistent with a candidate’s finally agreed plan. There is little or no evidence of appropriate changes to, or development of, the initial project plan or title or aims and objectives, with only limited reasons for any changes. Candidates communicate their findings by drawing on a limited number of sources and present them in a manner not always appropriate for the task. Detailed and careful evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the completed project in relation to the planning, implementation and outcomes, and the candidate’s own learning during the project. Material is consistently relevant, well-structured and appropriately presented. Candidates clearly communicate their findings and conclusions which are based on sound evidence and judgement. Some evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the completed project in relation to the planning, implementation and outcomes, and the candidate’s own learning during the project. Material is sometimes relevant, well-structured and appropriately presented. Candidates communicate their findings and conclusions which are based on some evidence and judgement. Limited evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the completed project in relation to the planning, implementation and outcomes, and the candidate’s own learning during the project. Material is not always relevant, well-structured or appropriately presented. Candidates communicate some of their findings and conclusions which are based on little or no evidence and judgement. It is important that you keep these criteria in mind, as the supervisor will keep to them very closely indeed. He or she can’t award a mark if there is no evidence available. And, of course, marks are awarded for quality, not quantity. See Appendix 1 for a guide on meeting the criteria in the context of a dissertation.
Assessment Objectives  Band  AO3 Develop and Realise                  Problem-solving. Decision-making. Creative thinking....
CHAPTER 4 - The project title Deciding on a suitable title may take weeks. By ‘suitable’ we mean that        it offers you the opportunity to carry out significant, in-depth research, it is not an area of study that has been covered in class, it has an ‘academic’ aspect, giving you the chance to make links, test hypothesises, and extract something greater than the sum of the information, it may have two or more sides to the argument, it may require you to work with data sources that you need to evaluate, it generates a quantity of work deemed appropriate for an AS-level qualification, it is of deep personal interest to you. In very broad terms, titles often fall into one category or another, as in the table: Asks a question or proposes a testable hypothesis that offers a range of possible answers or conclusions based on a number of factors.  Will we find life in the solar system by the end of the century?  What will be the leading cause of stroke in the UK in ten years’ time? Asks a question that directs you towards making a judgement based on trends in, or connections between, a range of sources and opinions.  To what extent is it possible to respond intelligently to Shakespeare's plays without a knowledge of Ovid's literature?  How did print media affect perceptions and responses to crime in the 19th century? You, rather than someone else, need to come up with the title to the project, in a process overseen by your supervisor. The title will evolve over time, and its development is something that the supervisor needs to see. Each iteration of the title needs to be researched, and adjusted in the light of that work. Initially, the draft topic area, or areas, can be very broad, presenting you with a number of possible avenues, each with their own offshoots. Having several ideas in the mix is better than considering just one line of enquiry – which might well end up as a dead end. The bulk of the work starts once the title has been decided and you begin the task of gathering and managing information. However, your research techniques and skills need to be in place, or at least be honed, during this initial phase of researching for the title. Before you get too far down the line, sorting out how you are going to use technology to help you, what you are going to do to log your work, what time management tools you will use, and so on. These aspects are covered in the next sections.
CHAPTER 4 - The project title Deciding on a suitable title may take weeks. By    suitable    we mean that                 ...
CHAPTER 5 - Ideas, time and data management How do you cope when confronted with a blank sheet of paper, or screen? In the EPQ there is no syllabus and no guidance on what to research, so your ability to form original (to you) questions and ideas is very much put to the test. And once thoughts and information start coming in, you then have to be efficient, clever and productive in organising them all. Doing this part well will help you to construct the final dissertation and presentation. The EPQ is all about working independently, and as individuals we all have preferred ways of working with ideas and data, and for organising our time. For example:    In searching for ideas and inspiration some prefer a loosely serendipitous trawl through book spines, magazine articles and web sites. Others like first to draw a spider diagram of questions, ever more searching, looking for that interesting enquiry which is likely to be the one to follow, and only then to reach for the books. ‘Sleeping on a problem’ works for some, where an inconclusive hour of browsing can later turn into a number of useful questions, simply by doing other things, going for a run or a good night’s sleep. That may be too frustrating for those who prefer to set aside a quiet and prolonged period of time, only emerging when the task is done. Paper notes and journals are championed by many, whereas the digital workers swear by the technology to keep their thoughts and timings in order. Of course, there is no one best way to work; even an individual will find that different systems work best for them at different times. However, it may not be too far from the truth to say that the Internet and technology is likely to play a large part in the search for the project title, the gathering and organising of information and thoughts, and certainly in the production of the dissertation and presentation. The EPQ is not a test of how good your study skills are at the start, but is an opportunity to develop strengths and learn new tools and techniques. Here are some suggestions for different ways of approaching some of the more IT elements of your organisational skills. Organise your favourites Synchronise your favourites Use Cloud file storage Information capture Find time to go through your favourites in your browser (aka bookmarks, etc) by getting rid of old ones, creating new folders and get in the habit of saving favourites when you see something which might be useful. Easier to do in Chrome, than it is in Firefox, than it is in Internet Explorer. But, if you do manage to set up synchronisation then you can research on any machine and still have the links to hand. Your school Office365 account includes 1 TB of storage in the OneDrive space – learn how to use it and get into the habit of storing your files there rather than the school network. Other Cloud services exist, such as Dropbox (dropbox.com) and Google Drive (drive.google.com). Evernote (evernote.com) is an excellent way of capturing and collating text, pages, images, sound, video, notes, etc, from a number of possible devices, all to the same place. Microsoft’s OneNote does a similar job, setting out the notes in a book, and is able to capture almost anything. OneNote is part of your Office
CHAPTER 5 - Ideas, time and data management How do you cope when confronted with a blank sheet of paper, or screen  In the...
Bookmarking OCR Web apps iPad Time management 365. It’s an excellent way of logging the research, which you will find useful when filling in the main log and constructing your presentation. It’s worth trying both, to see which works best with your needs and technology. Organising your thoughts can be difficult if new ideas keep cropping up. Mind-mapping sites such as text2mindmap.com are fun, and list sites can also help, eg workflowy.com. A step up from compiling a list of favourites in your browser is a system of maintaining clippings from pages, notes and links. Diigo (diigo.com) is a popular service, and works well across lots of devices. Delicious (delicious.com) concentrates on storing and sharing links, but it does offer up a useful way of searching for links that others have recommended. Annotary (annotary.com) (recommended, but currently doesn’t have private spaces), and Marker.to (marker.to) are designed to store and share highlighted parts of text on a web page. These, and similar apps, have restrictions or some sort of setting up to go through. Popular with the tablet are Pocket (getpocket.com) or Instapaper (instapaper.com). These are more transient ways of saving web pages for reading later, again, all synchronised. You’re in the library and there’s a great piece that you want to use later, either to use or to quote. You could get the book out or, if allowed, you could ‘OCR’ it. While out and about, Google Goggles on your Android or iPhone can extract text by using the phone’s camera. If you want to extract text from a picture or a pdf, using Google Docs is easy. To scan text straight into your phone, I’m sure you can search your app store to find something suitable! Using Cloud storage (see above) saves you from having to cart USB memory sticks around. Better than that, documents stored on OneDrive can be edited from within the browser itself; therefore, no software needs to be installed on the PC or Mac that you find yourself at. You can edit Word, Excel, PowerPoint and OneNote documents. Android and Windows tablets are more suitable for ‘office’ work than iPads, and can be used ‘out of the box’ for research iPads need more by way of setting up; these apps (http://bit.ly/cPYN49) are good for taking notes on the iPad, for example. Your King’s e-mail account brings with it fully functional calendar and task management applications, which have many powerful and integrated features, including reminders, and notes attachment. Better still, they can be synchronised with your phone, tablet, etc. Of course, Google also has a calendar application – all of the Google functions come with a gmail account, if you didn’t know. A popular way of representing tasks is as a Gantt chart. Gantter.com is a good example of doing this online.
Bookmarking  OCR  Web apps  iPad  Time management  365. It   s an excellent way of logging the research, which you will fi...
CHAPTER 6 - Researching As well as being able to organise your information and yourself, the other crucial skill that you need to master, ideally as you work on deciding the project title, is the process of research. This is core to whole project. Source types Journals. These contain articles, which are considered to be the best source of nonprimary data. They are peer reviewed, are not written for profit or a cause, and are usually packed with further references. Books. Clearly a valuable and wide ranging source of information. However, there are a number of aspects that one needs to bear in mind: the author’s motive for writing it (usually money); the reliability of the data and whether it would have been peer assessed; what is the reputation of the author and have they shown bias in other publications; reviews of the book; importantly, the publication date. Newspapers. Fine for establishing a context, but even the broadsheets can be selective in what they report. Useful for finding other sources and establishing a timeline of events. Reports. As you come across these, the first thing you consider is the origin. Government reports are to be trusted, as should those from established organisations such as UNESCO, WHO British Medical Association, and smaller ones such as IPCC and Pew Research. Some agencies, however, are openly seated in non-neutral ground, such as Greenpeace, WWF, and UKAEA. Primary data. Difficult to get in a project of this size in any volume to make it a central part of the project, but there is always some merit in getting something from primary sources, as long as it is used in context and appropriately. Questionnaires, experiments, and interviews are examples of how you demonstrate your awareness of the importance of primary data.
CHAPTER 6 - Researching As well as being able to organise your information and yourself, the other crucial skill that you ...
Sources School’s Gateway. In the Resource Centre part of the Gateway there are many excellent links to reference sites and databases. The links have to be put here as they are paid for services and have to be behind a secure log in. In particular, look at:    JSTOR UK & Ireland Reference Centre Philip Allan Magazine Archives Teaching staff. Be careful how much you rely on subject staff to provide you with information; they should really only be guiding you towards fruitful routes for your own research, and warn you of possible dead ends. Teaching staff will probably be too keen to help, so you need to be proactive in controlling what you take on board; receiving too much help will mark you down. School library. Obviously, the Librarian is a key player, and should be consulted whatever your topic – you may not be aware of the range of options that the Librarian has; for example, books and journals can be ordered in from other libraries. The school’s library database (Oliver) is available for searching at school as well as through the Gateway at home. You should know that the results from a query to Oliver will result in specially sorted links to web sites – this is a very useful feature. The Library subscribes to some excellent publications, such as The Week; get into the habit of browsing the papers to see if serendipity brings you useful material or ideas. Worcester library. Get yourself down to the Hive, and make good use of the trained staff there (http://www.thehiveworcester.org/). Internet. As well Google and Bing, there are public academic engines such as Google Scholar and Academic Research (Microsoft). Try searching for specific search engines – you may come across WolframAlpha, Europeana and scienceresearch.com, for example. Subscribe to podcasts, RSS feeds and e-mailing lists. Watch online lectures, such as TED (ted.com) or Khan Academy (khanacademy.org) and others at http://bit.ly/nt06oe. The BBC’s In Our Time (http://bbc.in/bRGncO) is an excellent resource, even for brainstorming title ideas. Events, museums, galleries. Get around and visit places. Plan ahead and see if someone is prepared to show you around. Have particular questions in mind, but be open to possible alternatives. Real people. Mentioned already, but worth emphasising again, is the importance and value of direct communication with real people e-mail or by meeting them in person. Social media. Get a Twitter account and use it as a search engine, for people, hashtags, and for content. I promise that you will be amazed at what you will find. Questionnaires. Finding fresh data for your EPQ is the Holy Grail, and one way of doing this is to conduct a questionnaire. Check this over with your supervisor first, so they can look for errors or slips in protocol.
Sources School   s Gateway. In the Resource Centre part of the Gateway there are many excellent links to reference sites a...
Exercise: DIGITAL RESOURCES 1. Make yourself aware of the links available through the searching and researching links in the Learning Toolkit area in the Resource Area on the school web site. Take time to follow each link, to see what it offers (report broken links to Mr Baum!). 2. Go to the school’s Gateway – Resource Centre – Online Resources. Have a look through the databases available. Look first at a. JSTOR, b. then UK & Ireland Reference Centre, c. Philip Allan, and d. Newspapers for Schools, and then the others. Do some simple and complex searching in each, to get a sense of what is available. 3. Look at the Hive website (www.thehiveworcester.org) – collections – catalogue search – research databases. From outside the Hive some access is restricted, though sometimes improved if you have your Worcestershire Libraries number. 4. Open the school’s library catalogue (link in your browser, or via the Gateway, or go to http://rhea:800/oliver). Do a basic search, and see the resource types available, including web links. Try using search operators in the search string and see what difference they make. Look at the Advanced search facility. You can access the catalogue from home, going in through the Gateway. 5. On the internet, look at, and explore a. Google Scholar b. Academic Research (Microsoft) c. Refseek d. Search for search engines – you’ll find sites such as WolframAlpha (science & maths mostly), Europeana (arts & culture), scienceresearch.com, for example. e. Look through the In Our Time podcast list and TED talks.
Exercise  DIGITAL RESOURCES 1. Make yourself aware of the links available through the searching and researching links in t...
Exercise: SEARCHING 1. Think of three keywords that you think will help you to search out useful links for you. a. Enter them into google.com. Compare with doing it with google.co.uk. Why might the results be different? Try the same with Bing. b. Rearrange the order of the keywords and repeat. Can you see why the results are different and could it influence your word order choice in the future? c. Increase the number of keywords considerably and see how the results change. Does there seem to be a point beyond which more words actually make the results less useful? 2. Enter a complete question connected with your topic, including a question mark, and compare the results with what you get by just entering the keywords. Can using a full question help? 3. What do the following common search operators do? Try them and experiment. a. “a phrase” b. word1 –word2, or word1 –“a phrase” c. word1*word2 d. word1 OR word2 4. If you have already explored the databases in the other section, go back to them and try out some of these techniques within their own, internal search engines – many will still make a difference to your results. 5. In Google a. Explore the search tools available, such as country of origin or time. b. Click on the cog on the right of search results and select Advanced search – make your way down the options available to you experimenting as you go.
Exercise  SEARCHING  1. Think of three keywords that you think will help you to search out useful links for you. a. Enter ...
Validating You will also want to be sure that any objective information you are gathering is ‘valid’, in the sense that it has been properly based on evidence and facts; try always to double-check your facts with independent sources. With more subjective opinions, get a sense of where your sources fit in the range of alternative viewpoints, and represent them with accompanying critical analyses. If you are looking at a pamphlet, see how ‘official’ it is, and find out if any organisations it refers to really do endorse it. With web sites, look at the domain extension (.ac.uk, for example), check higher level pages, and see if attributions to other bodies are mutual. Don’t assume all quotes are correct, of course. How dated is the information, and if it is old, might it matter, and if not, why not? As you gather material, keep asking the following questions: 1. Breadth & depth a. How many different types of sources have I used? b. How close to the origin of information did I get? c. Did I pursue references within references? 2. Validity of sources a. How appropriate is the source to my topic or title? b. What bias or subjectivity surrounds my source> 3. Validity of findings a. Can I validate the findings from independent sources? b. Are the data suffering from the effects of age, in the context of your title? See Appendix 2 for a guide on using the JSTOR search terms.
Validating You will also want to be sure that any objective information you are gathering is    valid   , in the sense tha...
CHAPTER 7 - The dissertation Five thousand words may seem a lot, particularly if you have elected to follow the sciences in the Sixth Form, where essays are rare animals. Take advice from those around you who still have to master the art of extended writing; how do they approach it and what suggestions can they give? Remember that, although the dissertation has to be constructed in a way that allows the reader to understand and be informed, it itself is only a small part of the assessment, and so you mustn’t get too hung up on the minutiae of the formatting and graphics. What the dissertation must do, as a minimum, is to present the evidence sufficiently well to show the journey you have made – as that is what the assessor is looking for. This is all covered in Chapter 3 in the Companion. Style Remember that the EPQ is an academic exercise. This is reflected by a formal, rather than informal, style of writing. Deal with facts in presenting gathered information, and make it clear whether you are making a hypothesis or a judgement. It needs to be precise and be devoid of waffle. Assume that the reader is appropriately ‘informed’ in the subject. The presentation, later, is the only place where you can assume that they are not specialists. Avoid using “I”. “me”, “myself” too much; keep to the facts, and keep personal opinions to the conclusion and evaluation. Formatting It is normally best practice to lay down the text first, and then apply formatting afterwards. That’s easier said than done, as it’s too easy to forget which are the sub-headings and how much indentation different sections need. Nonetheless, the reader will want to be confident as they navigate through your dissertation that they know where they are, and the relative importance of the different sections. The document that you are reading now is rather cluttered in terms of formatting, but on purpose. Note how effective a table is at segmenting the different sections, better than bullet points, as each section needed two bits of information. See the different use of indentation, with or without bullet points. Consider the (not so, here) careful use of font size, bold, and underlining; don’t combine more than two of these at once. I chose not to use ‘justified’ text in this document as there are a lot of bitty sections, but consider using it for yours. So, decide carefully at the start, rather than as you go along, what the different formatting ‘signposts’ are going to be, and apply them towards the end of the work. Don’t forget, your parents are good guinea pigs – ask them to look through it while making honest comments about how easy it is to ‘navigate’, even if the topic is not in their field.
CHAPTER 7 - The dissertation Five thousand words may seem a lot, particularly if you have elected to follow the sciences i...
Structure Your dissertation should contain the following sections, or their equivalent. Based on conventions used at university, they allow you to display more easily your evidence trail. Do not include the References (if you have one) and Bibliography sections in your count of 5000 words. Abstract: This is a stand-alone, succinct summary of the main report, laying out the purpose of the research, the main way in which the findings were collected, the key findings, and the main conclusion. This section must grab and interest your reader. It should be written last of all, consist of one paragraph, and include your conclusion’s ‘bottom line’. Introduction: This explains the issue or problem which triggered the research and allows the reader to know what to expect by summarising its genesis, outline, and background.     Define any terms used that a non-specialist will need to know. Set the scene by providing some background to the Project’s inspiration. Explain the aim of your Project – rather like a longer version of the title. Explain the objective(s) of your Project – that is, how your dissertation will set out to satisfy the aim.  Describe any parameters or limitations that restrict or define the work.  Explain your topic’s importance and context, eg global or local. Sources: What were the main sources of evidence that you used? Which others did you consider, or attempt, or were possible, but didn’t use and why? If you used more direct ways of gathering information (eg a survey or experiments), explain the methods that you used. Validating sources: it is important that you show evidence of you having assessed your (a) sources, and (b) findings, for bias, motive, accuracy, possible ambiguity and limitations, rigour, and so on. You can do this in the dissertation (here or in the references section / bibliography), in your presentation display, or in your official Log. Findings: This is the largest section as it is where you set out the raw data and evidence that you have found, by way of research, experimentation, surveys, etc. You must not expect the findings to speak for themselves too much; you need to give an analysis of why the findings are relevant to your hypothesis, question or argument. Linking findings and ideas together in this way is an important aspect of the assessment. The way that you present the information is up to you, and can depend largely on the nature of the topic covered by your Project. o o Sometimes, it is better to express your findings in structured categories, perhaps by source or by theme, and separate from the conclusion. Often this fits a scientific topic, or one rich in quantitative data. Sometimes, the findings and your conclusion can be woven together in a more homogenous structure; this may be a better fit for when the Project deals with less objective material. In this case, it must be clear to the reader what are findings and what are interpretations and conclusions.
Structure Your dissertation should contain the following sections, or their equivalent. Based on conventions used at unive...
However you choose to put the findings over, there must be sufficient signposting for the reader. Consider how it must be for someone to read your dissertation cold, without having gone through the thinking and reading that you have done. They should never ask themselves, “why am I reading this paragraph?”; make it clear what they are reading, before they read it. It can be done with (not too) many sub-headings, or a more expressive narrative. Conclusion: This is where you use the findings that you have gathered (and no other), to reach and present the ‘answer’ to the question or hypothesis expressed in the Project title. If you chose to explain the conclusion to the reader in the previous section, it would be worth distilling the salient points here again separately. The explanation you give of your conclusion must be sufficient and to the point; don’t leave it to the reader to work it out for themselves. If the answer is conditional, present alternatives in a coherent manner. Give a judgement about any uncertainty or vagueness that may surround your conclusion. This may be a result of the nature of the original sources or findings, or it may come from the topic being more subjective and opinion based. References: This section is only needed if you use the Harvard method of referencing (eg [Baum 2014, p33]), as it is where you list the full citations associated with the partial citations used throughout the dissertation, presented in alphabetical order. If you use the Vancouver method (eg the King’s abdication was inevitable4) then your footnotes at the bottom of a page should contain sufficient detail of the referenced source. Bibliography: If you use the Vancouver method then it is good practice to list your sources here again, but now in one place. With both methods of referencing, you may want to list for the reader any sources that you used or read in your work, but didn’t cite, along with any further reading that may be of interest. You are free to use your own version for your dissertation framework, but do not deviate too far away from the one above as it is based on well-regarded conventions.
However you choose to put the findings over, there must be sufficient signposting for the reader. Consider how it must be ...
Referencing citations There are two ways that we recommended for laying out information about which sources you used in your research: 1. the parenthetical, or Harvard, system (Wikipedia - http://bit.ly/NdxCCP), and, 2. the author-number, or Vancouver, system (Wikipedia - http://bit.ly/1kOLjsI). 1. Parenthetical eg … (Smith 2008, p. 1) … This system consists of short pieces of code held in round brackets (parentheses) embedded in the dissertation text at the appropriate point, which are called partial citations. At the end of the dissertation is a section, called References (sometimes called Bibliography), in which the full citations are listed, in alphabetical order. For example (Smith 2008, p. 1) would be embedded in the appropriate place in the text. This is telling the reader to look at page 1 in the book written by Smith in 2008. Then, in the list in the References section, would be: Smith, John (2008). Name of book. Publisher. If Smith had written more than one book in 2008, then 2008a or 2008b etc would be used. See the Wikipedia article for more examples. If the reference is a web site, the partial citation embedded in the text in brackets could be formatted in a similar way (Smith 2008), but the full citation in the References section would look like: Smith, John. Web page title & URL. Date (mm/yyyy) that the page was read. Instead of pasting in long URLs, you could use bitly (https://bitly.com) – which I have used throughout this document. It is still important to give the reader a sense of the URL, so you should include the top level domain name in the full citation: Black, Richard. Climate: 2C or not 2C? news.bbc.co.uk http://bbc.in/ONV75I 09/08/2012 [Incidentally, be careful with how you scatter web links throughout the dissertation. Word will try and hyperlink URLs that you type in, but you should remove them in the main report. You do this by right-clicking anywhere in the link, and removing the hyperlink. If you are referencing correctly, you will be able to put all of the hyperlinks in the References section, as above. They don’t look pretty when printed out, but the reader will be thankful if he or she is reading the dissertation on a computer.] A Twitter comment’s full citation could look like: @smithjohn33. Date (dd/mm/yyyy) of posting. A Facebook status update’s full citation could look like: John Smith. Date (dd/mm/yyyy) of status update. 2. Author-number eg, … this is a proven fact2, but sometimes … This system involves putting numbers in the text and listing the citations, by these numbers, at the end of each page or chapter. Each citation at the bottom of a page should follow the same conventions as in the parenthetical method, explain above.
Referencing citations There are two ways that we recommended for laying out information about which sources you used in yo...
Using Word for references 1. Parenthetical In Word – References tab – Citations & Bibliography section. This facility expects you first to enter all of your sources, in the ‘bibliography’. Then, with the style set to Harvard, Insert Citation at the appropriate point in your text; it will offer you a set of brackets and the option to enter the page number from a source that you select. You then insert the whole bibliography in a later section of the dissertation. While this is a very powerful facility in Word, it may be rather more than you can afford the time to manage. So, if you are using parenthetical referencing, you may be better off manually entering the citations each time they occur. 2. Author-number It is rather easier to use Word for this style than it is for parenthetical references. Place the cursor at the appropriate place (usually at the end of a sentence or phrase) and select References – Insert Footnote. You still need to type in the correct style of citation as the footnote. Be careful with the numbering system; by default, the numbering will run all the way through your document. You can, if you wish, get it to start afresh for each page, or each section. Using a fresh section for each chapter would be a good way of organising your text anyway, and having your footnote numbers refreshing in each section looks good. Endnotes are like footnotes, but you don’t have the chance to put them at the bottom of each page, but only at the end of sections or the whole document.
Using Word for references 1. Parenthetical In Word     References tab     Citations   Bibliography section. This facility ...
Graphics Graphics are more than just graphs. Even displaying counter arguments across from each other in a table with borders or coloured backgrounds brings a punch to the otherwise dry text. Of course, if the information is at all geographical, numerical, based on a timeline, or needs a sense of perspective or context, then a graphic of some sort should be considered, even if it’s just a few icons as ‘signposts’. Think carefully about what sort of graphic is most appropriate. Bar charts, pie charts and scatter (x-y) plots are the obvious ones but there are others. Above, you can see what Excel offers you, and then what Google Docs gives you on the right (which includes mapping data). If you use Excel, please don’t just accept the formatting that you are given by default; remove background shading, check for font size, point markers, and so on. There are a lot of online chart creators, and some are listed here (http://bit.ly/cia6OB), many of which are free. To bring a message home, and to enhance your findings, and only if you can afford the time, consider creating an infographic. These are trending strongly at the moment and a wellconstructed one can grab the reader’s attention. This is a link to a site with good advice on how to create an infographic, links to tutorials, and links to some online infographic generators: http://bit.ly/9VGyOY. Excellent examples can be found at with simple searches, and have a look at picktochart.com.
Graphics Graphics are more than just graphs. Even displaying counter arguments across from each other in a table with bord...
CHAPTER 8 - The presentation At the end of the process you are required to engage in a Q&A with others, in which you describe your findings and reflect on your journey. In the early part of October, there will be a Presentation Evening. During a ninety minute session you will stand next to a simple display about your EPQ while invited guests wander from one to the other, quizzing you on the EPQ. You should also have copies of your dissertation to hand, and you may wish to have a computer presentation running as well. The EPQ supervisors will listen in to your conversations, and will likely ask the occasional direct question of you. Your supervisor will tell you more about the process at the time; there may be options available, to allow you to choose what is best for you. There are two, equal, aims of this part of the Project. 1. Give an outline of the content and findings. Questions will range from the detailed to the general, and you will be expected to be able to respond appropriately, bearing in mind the likely background knowledge of your inquisitor and any time constraints. 2. Talk about the process. Questions on this aspect are likely to come from teachers, and you should dwell on how you have developed as a student and a researcher. Possible format for the posters to be displayed at the evening (assume space for eight A3 posters). 1. (kept at A4) Name, House, A2 subjects, possible university course area (not location). 2. Project title & brief expansion of title (ie mini-introduction). 3. (Main) sources – possibly with some sense of ‘validity’ or ‘caution’ in use. Visits, Hive, surveys, social media, journals?? etc. 4. ‘The answer’ – with any qualifying statements. 5. Tools used. Decision making: Mindmaps? (deciding title). Information management: online bookmarking?, paper?, OneNote?. Time management. Others (eg Google alerts). 6. Limitations of project. What would you do differently next time (in terms of sources, title, methodology etc)? 7. Personal development. What did you learn from the process? What were the greatest difficulties you had to overcome, and how (if) did you get past them? What would you do differently next time (in terms of time and information management, tools, skills etc)? 8. Your choice. Screenshots of OneNote? Photographs of visits? Article, ‘proving your answer’. A list of did you knows? Etc
CHAPTER 8 - The presentation At the end of the process you are required to engage in a Q A with others, in which you descr...
CHAPTER 9 - The Log What follows are general guidelines on what previous students have put into the different pages and sections in the Log. It is worth remembering that the Log has been designed to cope with all sorts of Project types, and not just for an academic dissertation; this guide, however, does veer towards assuming the Project is a dissertation. Record of Initial Ideas This is a record of the main landmarks in your thinking and with your research, between starting the Project and coming up with your main proposal. Detailed evidence for this is perfect for showing how you made decisions, researched likely threads, confronted issues, unearthed fertile resources, and responded to advice. Here you lay out how you considered the whole range of source types. There are a surprising number of marks at stake on this page alone. Within reason, no detail is too small. A gathered version of any notes that you might be putting into the Journal would not be out of place in this section. It is important that major changes and decisions are explained. The suggestions here should not be taken as the complete list of what goes into each section, but they have been offered to suggest the type of material that is not untypical. My ideas for topic/title There could be just the one idea, if you hit gold at the start, but perhaps a handful is a more typical number of early titles. My ideas for research and development of my project What possible sources have been thought of, and explored? What form will the findings take? How do the findings relate to the title? Will it be a deduction, weighing up alternative viewpoints, or is it a detective story looking behind the scenes? What research has been conducted in pursuit of a suitable title? My summary of the comments and advice from my supervisor During the Key Skills sessions, e-mail exchanges, and possible unofficial meetings during the autumn term, your supervisor will have offered guidance, some gentle steering, and encouraging or cautionary reflections of the experiences of other students. A concise summary of these should go into this middle section. The words that your supervisor uses will be carefully chosen to avoid giving you direct instructions; your account should reflect that, and you should not retell advice as if it were a command. Modifications I have made as a result of my discussions with my supervisor Your development will probably be influenced by the input from your supervisor. In this section you describe how your development was adjusted as a result from your supervisor’s input. This could, though unlikely, be blank.
CHAPTER 9 - The Log What follows are general guidelines on what previous students have put into the different pages and se...
Part A: Candidate Proposal Before the new year, ideally, you complete this page once you are confident that you have an idea for a project that will work. Tell your supervisor when it’s ready and they will arrange to have a Proposal Meeting. You can make changes to this page after the meeting, telling the supervisor when they have been done. Working title of my Extended Project Without committing to the final title, here you enter the considered aim of the Project, often in the form of a question. This working title will inform your subsequent planning of sources and actions, and will remain largely unchanged in its basic intent for the next few months. It is inevitable that the final title will be a refinement of and a natural offspring of the working title. You say what the final title is in a page filled in at the end of the course. My initial resources will be Here you explain in some detail where you will be extracting your findings from; many of these sources will be untested, but some will already have been used in your initial research for your title. It is worth keeping your options open even at this stage; it is important that you are seen to have tried a range of appropriate and viable sources. The courses of study or area(s) of personal interest to which the topic relates Some background is asked for here, to say why this Project proposal has come about. It may be a career aspiration, or a wish to bolster a university application, or simply a pure hobby or passion. You need to say here that you have checked (because you have!) that your L6 courses do not provide a substantial amount of the intended findings. However, it is legitimate for background material to be provided in the classroom, which will help you to understand terms and skills, and you may wish to mention the extent of that. My intended product For most of you this will be a 5000 word dissertation. Provide details of the courses that you are currently studying. Use a row for each of your four subjects.
Part A  Candidate Proposal Before the new year, ideally, you complete this page once you are confident that you have an id...
Planning Review Once your proposal has been approved, you can confidently spend time planning in much, much more detail how you will execute the Project. My next steps in planning, researching and deadlines that I will set myself. What I intend to do, by when, what resources I will use and how I will implement the recommendations of the centre coordinator (where appropriate) The top section in this page needs to show your supervisor that you have put in a considerable amount of time doing this. All of your intended sources need to be listed and explained, and you need to describe planned visits, surveys and direct enquiries. All of this is wrapped in a feasible timeframe of action. This is another one of those sections that can net a large number of marks; it is all about investing time in putting down evidence of planning and decision making. When this large section is complete, tell your supervisor and you will have the Planning Meeting. My summary of the comments and advice from my supervisor Complete these two sections on the page after the meeting. As before, be very careful how you relate your supervisor’s words. Modifications I have made as a result of my discussion with my supervisor and/or the comments from my centre coordinator When your proposal was approved the centre coordinator may have made a conditional approval; see that you have mentioned how you adapted your plan as a result. There may be other suggestions about your plan from your supervisor at this meeting. After the Planning Meeting you are free to go full speed in carrying the plan out, which will probably consist of gathering findings.
Planning Review Once your proposal has been approved, you can confidently spend time planning in much, much more detail ho...
Mid-Project Review Before you leave for the summer vacation you need to have an official meeting with your supervisor, so that they can assess where you are in your intended plan. These first two sections should be completed in advance of that meeting. Is my project following my original plan? How has my plan developed? Basically, you lay out here a warts and all account of your progress so far. You should use the original plan as a ‘benchmark’ for your success and (inevitable, to be honest) failures. Changes to the plan need to be explained and justified. Within reason, no detail is too small. Reflect on the timeframe and how you monitored your progress and how you have already made any necessary changes to the calendar. Say how you have checked the ‘quality’, suitability, or volume of your findings so far and, again, explain any changes made as a result of any shortfalls that you have perceived. My summary of the comments and advice from my supervisor After the meeting, complete these two sections. See earlier sections on how you should phrase things. Modifications I have made as a result of my discussion with my supervisor at this stage See earlier sections. My final title and agreed form of project product By this time, the working title may well have changed, as you have gathered your findings. Here you present the final title, as best you know it, on the eve of committing it all to paper. If you are not doing the 5000 word dissertation then you may also have had to change your artefact as well. My planned next steps to complete my project This will probably refer to the summer vacation work. Be realistic about what you think will actually happen, rather than what you would like to happen. It may be, also, that you want to find new sources, or to dig deeper through the journals. It’s best to avoid drastic changes at this stage. Often, students find they need to cut back on over-ambitious plans, which is fine, as long as it is done openly and for good reason.
Mid-Project Review Before you leave for the summer vacation you need to have an official meeting with your supervisor, so ...
Project Product Review The ‘product’ in most cases is a 5000 word dissertation. Soon after you return to school after the summer vacation, complete this top section, tell your supervisor, and have an official meeting. Did my project follow my revised plan (from the mid-project review)? As it says in the sub-title, describe how the work has gone since the previous meeting. Noting the deviations from the normal and how you adapted and responded is the most important thing here. My summary of the comments and advice from my supervisor at this final stage The advice that you describe here can come from the meeting or from the group sessions. Modifications I have made as a result of discussion with my supervisor at this final stage. Do I need to do anything else to complete my product? See earlier sections. Presentation Record Part A This is most often completed after the dissertation deadline, and your thoughts turn more to the presentation itself. Planned format of my presentation (eg timing, audience, use of visual aids, slides, use of notes, etc.). You can steal much of the text that should already have been pre-filled in the next page, Presentation B. Planned content of my presentation All you need to do here is list the content of the posters that you are designing. You could also describe any other material that you want to display. If you have produced an artefact for your Project then the posters should still be there but you may want to put more into displaying and explaining the artefact itself. Copies of the dissertation will have been printed for you for display. Modifications I have made as a result of rehearsal and/or discussion with my supervisor Note here any significant decisions or supervisor comments that may have arisen in connection with the posters (usually nothing much, if at all).
Project Product Review The    product    in most cases is a 5000 word dissertation. Soon after you return to school after ...
Summary and Reflection Firstly, summarise the whole dissertation in a few words, possibly compressing the abstract section. Secondly, be self-reflective and assess how you have developed as an independent worker and researcher. Thirdly, evaluate openly what you have done. Say where you feel you did particularly well in the Project, and then say what areas you are least happy with (this is a safe thing to do). Keep this section framed by these three aspects, but the rubric offers some other ideas that you can add in to what you say. This is one of those sections where quite a few marks can be gained.
Summary and Reflection Firstly, summarise the whole dissertation in a few words, possibly compressing the abstract section...
APPENDIX 1 A GUIDE TO MEETING THE CRITERIA IN THE EPQ ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES AO1 Manage /10 How I plan, and prepare, for my project. Clear identification of the topic to be investigated or researched and clear evidence of appropriate aims and objectives for the proposed project title. Is my title unambiguous and answerable? Is the aim of the project clearly explained? Do I give a sufficient insight into the broader topic or context? Detailed project plan, with clear evidence of monitoring progress of project work against the agreed objectives. Do I clearly state the methods I planned to use to meet the project’s aim/title (ie my objectives)? Eg “I intend to answer the question posed in the title by comparing … and seeing if …”. Have I shown evidence of my planning for how I intended to achieve my objectives? Eg “In order to compare … and to see if … I will gather information from the following sources … and visit … and ask …”. Have I shown evidence of my planning for when I was to do the various stages, and how I monitored my progress against deadlines? Is it clear where I have shown satisfaction, or not, with the quality of the findings I was gathering? That is, have I shown how I monitored the efficacy of my data as it was accumulating, and any steps I took to counter any shortfalls? D: Title. L: Proposal A. Posters. D: Introduction. L: Proposal A. D: Introduction. L: Proposal A. D: Introduction / Sources. L: Proposal A / Planning Review. Posters. D: Sources. L: Proposal A / Planning Review. Posters. L: Proposal A / End Project Review / Reflection. Posters. L: Mid Project Review / End Project Review / Reflection Posters.
APPENDIX 1 A GUIDE TO MEETING THE CRITERIA IN THE EPQ ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES  AO1 Manage  10  How I plan, and prepare, for ...
AO2 Use resources /10 How good my sources are, and how I use the resources I find. Evidence of detailed research involving the selection and evaluation of a wide range of relevant resources. Do I show that I put significant effort into considering and investigating a wide range of source types? Of the sources that I used, have I demonstrated how I judged them to be appropriate and trustworthy? If any of my sources required caution, have I explained the nature of any special consideration and how I took it into account in my project? Have I managed to find and use an appropriately large number of independent sources, or have I relied too heavily on resources from a small number of sources and source types? Have I shown examples of where I followed links / references from articles, to get further findings? Is it clear to see any attempt that I made to gather primary material? Critical analysis and application of the resources with clear links made to appropriate theories and concepts. Do I show where I verified data or findings from separate sources? Are the findings that I have used clearly within the parameters of my topic, title, and objectives? Will the reader understand, at all times, the reasons for presenting different data and ideas, and how they relate to how the dissertation unfolds? D: Sources. L: Proposal A / Planning Review Posters. D: Sources. L: Proposal A / Planning Review / Mid Project Review. D: Sources. L: End Project Review / Reflection. D: Sources / Reference list. L: Proposal A. L: Reflection. D: Sources / Reference list. L: Proposal A. D: Findings. L: End Project Review. D: Sources / Reference list. D: Findings.
AO2 Use resources  10  How good my sources are, and how I use the resources I find.  Evidence of detailed research involvi...
AO3 Develop and realise /20 How well I carry out the plan and satisfy the project’s aims. Candidates take appropriate decisions and appropriate data is collected and thoroughly analysed. The project plan is fully implemented and the outcome is fully realised to a high standard and consistent with a candidate’s finally agreed plan. Do I give my reasons for choosing the sources that I ended up using? There is clear evidence of appropriate changes to or development of the initial project plan or title or aims and objectives, with clear and appropriate reasons for any changes. Candidates communicate their findings fluently in an appropriate format, synthesising information from a variety of sources and present them within a logical and coherent structure which addresses closely the nature of the task. Do I give my reasons for not using any of the sources, or findings, that I have considered? Did I complete all that I set out to do in my plan, in terms of sources, findings and timings? Have I completed the project to a level of quality and completeness that is consistent with the highest grades achievable at AS level? Is my journey through the course clearly visible? Have I demonstrated and explained the development of my ideas as I worked towards my title, plan, and objectives? If I feel that I have been innovative or creative in any part of my plan or in its execution, have I drawn attention to the fact? Have I used an appropriately formal, clear and objective style of writing, making it clear where I offer my own opinion or conclusion? Have I included all of the necessary sections? Does my structure emphasise the common purpose of my findings, and have I made clear any connections between them? Does the reader know why they are reading any part of it, and can they easily navigate their way through it, by way of signposts or formatting? If I have used graphics, are they adequately captioned and referenced? Do they form a natural part of the writing? Have I cited references correctly? If I don’t need a separate list of referenced sources, should I have one anyway? Do I make clear the distinction between sources used in the dissertation that are cited and those that I read or watched but served only to guide? Does it look as if I have put much effort in collecting material to list in the bibliography? L: Proposal A, Mid Project Review, End Project Review. L: Proposal A, Mid Project Review, End Project Review. L: End Project Review / Reflection. Dissertation / Log / Presentation. L: Mid Project Review, End Project Review, Reflection. L: Initial Planning, Planning Review. Posters. L: Proposal A, Mid Project Review, End Project Review, Reflection. Posters. Dissertation. Dissertation. D: Findings / Conclusion. D: Findings / Conclusion. D: Findings / Conclusion. D: Findings / Reference list. D: Reference list. D: Bibliography.
AO3 Develop and realise  20  How well I carry out the plan and satisfy the project   s aims.  Candidates take appropriate ...
AO4 Review /10 How I communicate my conclusion, and show awareness of my own development. Detailed and careful evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the completed project in relation to the planning, implementation and outcomes, and the candidate’s own learning during the project. Have I said what I consider to be the particular strengths of my plan, methods of collecting data, tools, or conclusion, and explained why at any length? Have I said what I consider to be any weaknesses of my plan, methods of collecting data, tools, or conclusion, and explained why at any length? Do I discuss, at length, how successful I think I have been in developing my skill set, and in gaining confidence at working independently and presenting ideas? Have I kept material or images that are purely for decoration to a minimum? Are my posters constructed to a high standard of formatting, clarity and relevance? Have I made my conclusion clear, and does it address my project title directly? Does my conclusion rigidly and solely follow from my findings? Do I indicate if any of my findings are not used in drawing my conclusion, and do I say if I could have anticipated it? Have I also, if appropriate, separately presented, in clear terms, the degree of uncertainty or confidence in my conclusion? Material is consistently relevant, wellstructured and appropriately presented. Candidates clearly communicate their findings and conclusions which are based on sound evidence and judgement. L: Reflection. Posters. L: Reflection. Posters. L: Reflection. Posters. Dissertation / Presentation. Presentation. D: Conclusion. D: Conclusion. D: Findings / Conclusion. L: End Project Review, Reflection. D: Conclusion.
AO4 Review  10  How I communicate my conclusion, and show awareness of my own development.  Detailed and careful evaluatio...
APPENDIX 2 JSTOR search terms Typing … Means … american revolution searches for either american or revolution or both. “american revolution” searches the exact phrase. “debt forgiveness”~10 gets results with the terms debt and forgiveness within ten words of each other. cat^7 dog places seven times more relevance to the word cat than dog. knife& searches for knife and knives (ie all plural forms). au:smith finds all items with Smith as the author. ti:(peace "united nations") finds word peace and the phrase united nations in the item title field. au: jo: ti: ta: ab: ca: ty:fla Bill AND Ben Bill OR Ben Bill NOT Ben dostoyevsky~ ? searches for items that contain both words anywhere in the article; can use Bill && Ben, or Bill & Ben, +Bill +Ben, (Bill Ben). searches for items that contain either Bill or Ben, or both. searches for items that contain Bill and do not contain Ben; can use Bill -Ben. searches for close spellings, with the same initial letter single character searching te?ts * author journal name item title, including reviews item title, not including reviews item abstracts illustration captions full length articles searches for terms of five characters, eg tests and texts multiple character searching bird* au:sm* searches for authors with a name beginning with sm p*diatric # finds bird, birding, birdman etc searches for pediatric and paediatric multiple endings operate# finds operate, operating, operation, and operative goose# finds goose, geese, and gosling went#finds went, go, and going
APPENDIX 2 JSTOR search terms Typing      Means      american revolution  searches for either american or revolution or bo...
Grouping combined search terms with parentheses   The search "currency reform" AND (russia OR "soviet union") will search for items that contain the phrase currency reform and that contain either russia or soviet union. Without grouping parentheses, the search is interpreted as "currency reform" AND russia OR "soviet union," which returns items containing either both currency reform and russia or containing soviet union. Other examples,     (finch OR sparrow) AND exotic will search for items that contain the word exotic and either the word finch or the word sparrow (birds OR butterflies) NOT sparrow will search for items that contain either the word birds or butterflies and do not contain the word sparrow birds NOT (sparrow robin) will search for items that contain the word birds but do not contain both the words sparrow and robin (remember, a space between terms defaults to an AND operator) birds NOT (sparrow OR robin) will search for items that contain the word birds but do not contain either the word sparrow or the word robin Searching within results To search within an existing set of search results, check the "search within these results" box and enter a new search term in the text box (deleting any text already there). Then click the "search" button. The new query will be appended to the first with the AND operator. If the new term is entered with the operator NOT at the beginning, the original query and the "search within these results" query are joined with NOT. For example,   The original search for the word dog, and the word cat entered in the "search within these results" box, will find dog AND cat. The original search for the word dog, and the words NOT cat entered in the "search within these results" box, will find dog NOT cat. Related items When viewing an item in JSTOR, look for boxes on the right-hand side of the screen that can lead you to related items. The JSTOR box can contain, if applicable:    References (opens Summary page to References section). Items Citing this Item (opens Summary page to Items citing this Item section). Items by author name (runs a search on that author name).
Grouping combined search terms with parentheses           The search  currency reform  AND  russia OR  soviet union   will...