Learn all about India

Irresistible India 

By Ethan Madappatt

page 4- introduction

page 5- map of India on a world map

page 6- Food

page 7- Recipe from India

page 8- Fashion

page 10- Games and Toys

page 12- Festivals and Holidays

page 14- How Do You Say...?

page 16- Animals

page 18- Arts and Crafts

page 20- Iventions

page 22- Music

page 24 -Words

page 26- People

page 28 -Glossary

page 30- Look What Doesn't Come From India

Table of Contents

 

                                                   

 

               India is a gorgeous country located in southern Asia. It is next to the Indian Ocean which makes India a great place for trading and shipping goods. It’s temperature in the summer can go up to 177 degrees fahrenheit! At that heat you can fry eggs on the road! The indian civilization known as the Indus Valley Civilization, were the very first people that inhabited India. These people date back to the 3200 BCE, and invented many things we use today like buttons!

               This civilization ended in between the 1900 and the 1700 BCE. Many archeologists believe that this rich civilization ended by war, famine, or sickness. Archeologists have found many bodies around houses which could mean there was a battle. After that India developed, and in 1858, Great Britain took over India. A man named Mohandas K. Gandhi lead peaceful marches and protests against Great Britain, which lead to India becoming a free country.

Irresistable India 

          Foods that are devoured in India are Tandoori chicken.You might be thinking what chicken? Tandoori chicken is called tandoori chicken because it is usually cooked in a tandoori oven or clay oven at a high temperature. Tandoori chicken has a red color from all the spices used to make it such as Cayenne pepper and chili powder. It is often prepared and served with  yogurt.

Jalebi is a popular orange dessert eaten in India. Jalebi is a dough fried dish that is in a coil shape. The coil is then dipped into sugar syrup. Often eaten with tea, yogurt, or milk.

 Food

chapati

        Chapati is a bread that is eaten with curry or other food items. Chapatti is a dough fried dish that is stretched, straightened and then rolled out to get a circular, flat shape. Then it is put on a griddle a cooked until it gets hard and crunchy.

Tandoori chicken

Jalebi

       Combine all ingredients and stir in a large bowl. After all ingredients have been combined, knead the dough until smooth. Next, divide the dough into 10 equal parts and then roll the dough into balls. Let the dough balls sit for some time. While they sit, grease and put a skillet on medium flame. On a lightly floured surface, roll out the dough with also a lightly rolling pin and make it from a ball of dough to a thin piece of dough.

         Put the dough on the griddle and cook until dark brown spots start forming on the spot that is exposed to the griddle. Then flip the chapati to do the other side. When fully cooked, remove the chapati bread from the griddle and place on a flat surface. Then do the rest of the dough balls until you have 10 chapatis! Chapati goes great with curry or for wraps for other various foods!

 To make chapati bread, you will need:

  • 1 cup of whole wheat flour
  • 1 cup of all-purpose flour
  • 1 teaspoon of salt
  • 2 tablespoons of olive oil
  • 3/4 cup of hot water

Recipe for chapati bread

this were a few grown plants in India come from.

     Fashion is a big part of Indian culture. In many paintings and in history, gods wear the same kind of clothing people of India wear to day. Many Indian-Americans wear these clothing styles in America too. Now many designers use Indian clothing techniques and styles for their clothes

Fashion

Two men wearing a sherwani.

            People in India were a sherwani for special occasions. A sherwani is a long coat that goes down all the way to the shins. One cool part of this shirt is the collar. The collar stands straight up so the neck is almost completely invisible. The sherwani is usually worn on special occasions such as weddings, parties, or funerals.

      Women usually wear a sari. A sari is a garment that is draped from the shoulder down. There is a wide variety of different color,shape, and styles. The cloth can be as long as 5- 9 meters long. Many Indian women have done different ways of draping the sari

A man wearing a dhoti

        Men wear a Dhoti. A dhoti is usually 4 to 6 feet long when laid out. A dhoti can be in color or just plain white.The cloth is held together around the waist with a wrapping, or even fancier, a belt.

woman wearing a sari

        Carroms is a game where you flick circular pieces into holes in a square board. This game is very popular in Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. To win this 2-4 player game you must flick a piece called the “striker” to hit other pieces into the net-filled holes on each corner of the board. The pieces you must get in the holes are red, black, and white. Black is 1 point, red is 5 points but needs to get followed up with another piece to gain both pieces and points, and the white, which is 2 points. The player with the most points wins! Players rotate moves with the striker going clockwise.

 

Lau kata kati

Games/Toys

          Another great game is Lau kata kati. Lau kata kati is a strategy game that consists on pieces laid out in a grid pattern. With a vacant point in the middle, all pieces are placed in a triangle, with one side for one player and another side for another player. The objective of the game is to capture all of your opponent’s pieces or stalemate them so they cannot move their pieces in any direction. Lau kata kati is almost like checkers but in a triangular pattern.

A carroms board

        Another adored game played in India is cricket. Cricket is a game related to baseball, but has different names of the players and different styles of playing. Instead of the pitcher there is a bowler and instead of the batter there is a batsman. The bowler throws the ball at the batsman and the batsman is supposed to hit it. The batsman has to attempt runs.

      

 

A complete wicket

A bowler pitching the ball at the batsman

     

         When the batsman hits the bat, he tries to run to the opposite side of the field which is 1768 cm long. The opposing team then gets the ball a tries to knock off a bail from a wicket before the batsman makes it to the wicket. A wicket has 3 stumps and 2 pieces of wood on top of them. 

Festivals and Holidays

          Diwali, or also known as the festival of lights, celebrates a Hindu legend about a victory of light over darkness. Rama a blue skinned warrior who is the human form of the god Vishnu, defeated the demon king, Ravana who had 10 heads. According to the legend, Rama lead an army of monkeys against Ravana’s flanks of demons. While the two armies were in warfare, Rama fought with  Ravana. Rama was almost defeated until he remembered that he had the brahmastra, a missle that the gods gave him.

   

 

       Rama got the missile and shot it into Ravana’s belly button, which instantly killed him. When Rama returned to the kingdom from his 14 years of exile to be crowned king, the civilians greeted him by lighting rows of candles on the roads.Hindus celebrate this victory of light over darkness on Diwali. Hindus light rows of lambs on their windows and around their house. People draw Hena designs on their hands and exchange sweets and gifts.

Rama attacking Ravana

Rama and the monkey god hanuman attacking the demon king, Ravana

Henna design

      Another holiday celebrated in India is Holi. This is the celebration of color and love. To celebrate, people throw colored powder at each other. They also throw water balloons and shoot colored water through water guns. Holi starts on the evening before Holi. People star bonfires where they dance, eat, and sing.

 

A pookalam

          Another festival is Onam. Onam lasts for 10 days and starts around August or September. Onam celebrates when the king, Mahabali,returns to his beloved  people from the underworld. Many people make a pookalam or a colorful circle made of flowers. Many indians eat over a huge banana leaf and eat traditional food such as banana chips and papadum, a bread that is cooked so when eaten, it is very crispy and flavorable.

A Holi festival

       

   

                English                                            Hindi                              

  

               Hello                                                namaste

               goodbye                                         alavida

               good morning                              shubh prabhaat

               good afternoon                             namaskaar

               good night                                     shubh raatri                               

               please                                              krpaya

               thank you                                      dhanyavaad

               father                                               pita

               mother                                             maan

               grandfather                                     daada 

               granmother                                     daadee

How Do You Say...?

Hindu letters

         The Bengal tiger is one of the most ferocious and aggressive tigers in the world but are endangered with fewer than 2,500 bengal tigers left in the world. Their representation of orange and black striped fur helps them blend into their natural habitats of rainforests, swamps, and grasslands. Male bengal tigers can have the length of 270 to 310 cm including the tiger’s tail. Females on the other hand, have a length about an average of 240 to 265 cm.

A male can weigh from 397 to 569 pounds! The female tigers also have the weight of 220 pounds to 350 pounds! Tigers are carnivores so they eat meat. They usually eat chitals and even water buffalo.

 

Animals

A Bengal tiger stalking it's prey

A Bengal tiger

        Another animal that inhabits India is the asian elephant. There are as less than 40,000 asian elephants left in the world. The average height of an asian elephant is 9 feet while females are 8 feet. Males weigh 6 short tons while a female weighs about 3 short tons! Both female and male lengths of their body vary between 18-21 feet.

      

 

an asian elephant 

        Elephants use their trunks so they can scoop up water from lakes. Another use of the trunk is to reach high leaves on trees and to even move trees from their path! Elephants put mud on their back so they can stay cool under the sun’s harsh rays. Basically it works as a substitute for suntan lotion!

       The Taj Mahal was built when the king Shah Jahan ruled India. When Shah Jahan wife died after giving birth to their 14th child, he was filled with sadness. To memorialize her death, he told Ustad Ahmad, the lead architect of the design, to design a mausoleum for the his wife next to the Yamuna River. The construction of the Taj Mahal took 12 years to complete the construction.

       20,000 workers and 1,000 elephants helped make the tomb for the queen! Precious stones and jewels were used in the construction of the Taj Mahal, but many were stolen from thieves and some  were stolen when Britain left India. The Taj Mahal still exists and is a major tourist attraction. The Taj Mahal is also one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.

 

 

Arts and Craft 

The Taj Mahal

       The Red Fort is another extraordinary art of India. It is located in the center of Delhi. It is called the Red Fort because of its huge,red sandstone walls. This wall surrounds the emperor and their homes. This was also created when Shah Jahan was emperor.

 

 

        The Tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula was usually called the “Baby Taj” or “Jewel Box” because some people say it was the model for the Taj Mahal. It was built between 1622-1628 as a mausoleum for the chief treasurer for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. The Emperor gave the lead treasurer the name “Itmad-ud-Daulah” which means pillar of the state. At each corner, is a tower that si 13 meters tall. The walls are made of marble and in it is various designs with lapiz lazuli and topaz.

 

The Red Fort

Itmad-ud-Daula

       Indians from the Indus River Valley invented the button. These buttons were not to hold your clothes together, but as a decorative accessory on your clothing.  These buttons were made out of seashells. These buttons were also made in many shapes and sizes. These shapes also had holes on them to fasten it to your clothes by using thread.

 

Inventions

Early chess

       Indians invented chaturanga, which later became known as chess today. Chess is strategy game where two armies battle each other with soldiers that have different abilities and different weaknesses. Some pieces in chess are called the king, queen, rook, bishop, knight, and pawns. The object of the game is to make the enemy king get captured because of it not being able to move anywhere. Chaturanga was spread around the world until people started changing the rules and it became chess.

Early buttons

        Shampoo was also created by Indians. It was introduced to the Mughal Empire as a head massage, which consisted of perfumes and natural oils. Soon Britain started developing shampoo until people used it when they took a bath to scrub their hair.

shampoo

        An instrument that is used in Indian music is a Sitar. The sitar is a chordophone which means it’s a stringed instrument. The siat is usually played in classical indian music or Hindustani music.The word “sitar” comes from the persian shetar which means “3 strings”. Musicians hold the sitar by balancing it between his right knee and the left foot. When a musician does this, his arms are free to pluck at the strings to make music.

 

A Sitar

Music

A man plying the Sitar

      Another chordophone instrument played in India is the Sarangi. Also is usually played in Hindustani classical music. The word “sarangi” came from two words,“saar” which means summary and “ang” which means form or different ways of playing an instrument. Usually made from a block of red cedar wood.

 

A Bansuri flute

       The bansuri flute is a flute from the South of Asia, which is made of a stick of bamboo. It has 6-7 holes on it so you can put your fingers on and blow to get a different sound with each finger hole. The bansuri has been played in a love story between Krishna and Radha. This flute is also see in many Buddhist paintings in tombs and other historical sites. Usually 14 inches long.

A Sarangi

        A word that we use today that originated in India is Shampoo. Shampoo is a liquid soup that we use to wash our hair and scalp when we take a bath. In India were it was invented, people used it to massage their heads rather than to clean it. Shampoo comes from the word champo, which means to squeeze or massage.

A cheetah

Words

       Another word we use is cheetah. A cheetah is a black-spotted large cat that runs in Africa at speed up to 70-75 mph. Cheetah comes from the word “cita” which means spotted with.                   

 

Shampoo

A word we use also is pajamas. Pajamas are a 2 piece or even 1 piece of clothing that is comfortably for when you sleep. They usually have cartoons on it for fun for children of all ages. Pajamas come from the hindu word “pay jamah” which means leg clothing

 

pajamas

          On March 12, 1930, Gandhi lead an enormous crowd of protesters to the sea to get their own salt from the sea. Gandhi did this 241 mile march to the sea because he wanted to protest against the law for Indians not to make their own salt. This was an incredible feat for the pathway of  India becoming a free country because this made Britain furious. Later this protest was called the Salt March. After Gandhi got back, he wove his own clothes from a spinning wheel that offended the law of not making your own clothes. Later when India became free, the spinning wheel was put on the Indian national flag. When he was put in jail for the 7th time, his wife, joined him but suddenly Kasturba died in Gandhi’s arms. The officials then took Gandhi out of jail because he  was getting sick from fasting to much.

 

        A person that changed India forever was Mohandas Gandhi. Many people called him “Mahatma” Gandhi which means “high souled”. Mohandas Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, India. Gandhi became a lawyer but soon stopped his career to end Britain’s grasp over India. Gandhi thought that he can tell Britain to let India be independent by leading peaceful marches to make India free. He became very popular and had many Indians on his side. Britain got angry and put Gandhi in prison 7 times total in his life. During all this, Gandhi married Kasturba Gandhi and had 4 children.

People

Mohandas Gandhi

         On January 30th, 1948 5:17 pm, Gandhi was going to a prayer meeting. While going through the Birla House’s garden, Nathuram Godse shot 3 bullets into Gandhi’s chest. At the memorial for Mahatma Gandhi, there is a sign that says “He Ram” or “Oh God”. These words were supposedly the last words Gandhi said before he died. Gandhi’s funeral procession was 5-miles long. His body was placed in a carriage and pulled by 50 people. Gandhi’s legacy lived on and  influenced many other nonviolent protesters such as Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela.

Mahatama Gandhi

Gandhi's Salt March

1. civilization- an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached.

 

2. knead- to work dough or clay into a uniform mixture by pressing, folding, and stretching.

 

3. stalemate- a position when the player can't move any piece except the king and if the king moves, it will be in check.

 

4. pookalam- a decorative circle that is made of flowers during Onam.

 

5. Henna- ink that comes from the henna plant. It is used for dying hair and for drawing designs on hands, feet, and other body parts

 

Glossary

Look What Doesn't Come From India

      1. In America, americans speak many different languages bu they primaliry speak English. In India, Indians don't speak Indian, because there is no main language. In India, there are 150 different languages spoken in India

        2. Many people think India is the hottest place in the world! Al  of those people are wrong! In the northern part of India are the Himalayas which are very high up. This are can drop to 18 degrees C!

        

 

May this wonderful land be a destination in your future!

                     -Ethan Madappatt

Mrs. Jones 

Ardsley Middle School

 

700 Asford Ave

Ardsley, NY 10502