important people and events during the civil war; confederacy versus the union

   The Civil War   

Civil War :

 

[noun] a war 

 

between

 

citizens of the

 

same country

Confederacy vs. Union

North

The US was split into two- the Confederacy(South) and the Union(North) due to

 

the secession of southern states. The states still within union territory were Maine, New

 

York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania,

 

New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa,

 

California, Nevada, and Oregon. Abraham Lincoln was their president. Other leaders of

 

the Union included Ulysses S. Grant, Joseph Hooker, George Meade, George McCllelan, John

 

Pope,William Techumseh Sherman, David Farragut, and

 

many more. Compared to the South, the North had numerous advantages. Some of their

 

strengths was  having an  industrial platform, railroad locomotives, manufaction of firearms,

 

production of cotton, and a greater population. They produced three-fourths of the nation's

 

wealth as well. Their weaknesses were their lack of knowledge on unfamiliar territory,

 

having few trained soldiers, and long distances to tranport troops and supplies. The Union

 

was intent upon restoring themselves. Their strategy was originally conceived by General

 

Winfield Scott. The plan was split the Confederacy, starve them by a blockade, and finally

 

invading and capturing their capital (Richmond, Virginia). Nicknames for those in the

 

union were Yanks, Yankees, Federals, Armies, The Old Army, Blue Bellies, and the

 

occasional Billy Yanks. Their color was blue while the South's was grey. They ended up 

 

winning the american civil war and got what they wantes - unity within the states.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

     the Union

South

 

The Confederate states were South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia,

 

Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Jefferson Davis was

 

their president. Other leaders of the confederacy included Robert E. Lee, Thomas Jackson,

 

Alexander Stephens, and many more. Compared to the North, the South had some

 

advantages. Some of their strengths was knowing the territory they were fighting on, having

 

trained soldiers, and believing the cause because it was for their independence. Their

 

weaknesses were having few railroads to transport troops and supplies, a small population

 

to volunteer for army and make supplies, and very few factories. Stated in simple terms,

 

the aim of the Confederacy was to sustain its independence while the union was trying to

 

prevent that. One side had defensive aims with time on their side while the other needed

 

to take war directly to its enemy. The Southern strategy would be defending southern

 

territory but taking offensive opportunities when presented. A nickname for those in the

 

Confederacy were "Rebels." Their color was grey while the North's was blue. They ended up

 

losing the american civil war and the North got what they want- unity within the states.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

     the Confederacy

Secession Events and Causes of Civil War

The Road to Civil War

Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina

Who was involved?

Those involved in the battle of Fort Sumter included Union president Abraham Lincoln, Major Robert Anderson, confederate forces, Governor Francis Pickens, Norman J. Hall, Union captain Abner Doubleday, Edmund Ruffin, Louis Wigfall, Private Daniel Hough, and Private Edward Galloway.

 

When did the battle occur?

Fort Sumter was attacked on April 12, 1861.

 

Where did the battle take place?

Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina is where the battle took place.

 

What happened?

The Battle of Fort Sumter was a bombardment and surrender of Forst Sumter.

 

Why did it happen?

Following Lincoln's election, a number of Southern states seceded from the union and formed the Confederate states of America. During this secession, many threats were made to federal troops occupying forts in the south.

 

Outome/Winners

The Confederate attack on Fort Sumter marked the beginning of the Civil War.

 

What was its impact?

The Civil War began when Confedeate forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina. This was just the first battle of the civil war.

Battle of Fort

 

Sumter

Prince William County, Virginia, near the city of Manassas

Who was involved?

Those involved in the battle of First Bull Run included General Thomas Jackson, union troops, confederate soldiers, George B. McClellan, Irvin McDowell, and more.

 

When did the battle occur?

The Battle of First Bull Run was fought on July 21, 1861.

 

Where did the battle take place?

The first battle of bull run occurred in Prince William County, Virginia, near the city of Manassas. Therefore this battle is also referred to as the Battle of First Manassas.

 

What happened?

The battle began when 300,000 inexperienced Union soldiers attacked a smaller, also inexperienced Confederate troop. The Confederate forces pushed towar the Union forces, causing the Union forces to back in fear. 

 

Why did it happen?

The Yankees drove the Confederates back at first and then the Rebels rallied.

 

Outome/Winners

The Battle of the First Bull Run ended in a Confederate victory.

 

What was its impact?

Following the first major battle of the civil war, the Battle of First Bull Run, the Union called for more troops to fight and planned for the long war ahead.

Battle of First

 

Bull Run

Stewart Couty, Tennessee

Who was involved?

Those involved in the battle of Fort Donelson included Ulysses S. Grant and other union soldiers, as well as the confederate soldiers.

 

When did the battle occur?

The battle occured on February 6, 1862.

 

Where did the battle take place?

Grant captured Fort Donelson on the Cumberland in the Western Theater of the American Civil war. 

 

What happened?

The union commander at Cario, Ulysses S. Grant, was ordered to move against Confederate forces in Kentucky and Tennesse. Grant captures Fort Henry on the Tennesse River and later captured For Donelson on the Cumberland.

 

Why did it happen?

One of the North's goals in the west was to gain control of the Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers in order to split the Confederacy and sabotage Southern efforts for transporting goods.

 

Outome/Winners

Grant's victories helped secure the lpwer Tennessee River and opened a path for Union troops to enter Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama. Te battle of Fort Donelson was a Union victory.

 

What was its impact?

The union capture of the confederate Fort Doneslon near the Tennessee-Kentuckty border opened the Cumberland River, and important way for invasion into the South.

Battle of Fort

 

Donelson

Hampton Roads, Virginia

Who was involved?

Those involved in the battle of Hampton Roads were Officer Franklin Buchanan, the CSS Virginia, USS Congress, John Ericsson, Lt. John L. Worden, Catesby Jones, the Minnesota, USS Monitor, and more. 

 

When did the battle occur?

The Battle of Hampton Roads occurred on Marcc 8-9, 1862.

 

Where did the battle take place?

The Battle tooks place on Hampton Roads, Virginia.  

 

What happened?

The Battle of Hampton Roads, also known as the Battle of the Ironclads,  was a part of the effort of the Confederacy to break the Union blockade, which had cut of Virginia's largest cities from international trade.

 

Why did it happen?

 Following the outbreak of the civil war in 1860, the Navy burned several ships. With the Union blockade and ability of international trade taken away from them, the Confederate secretary of the navy, Stephen Mallory, began searching for ways where his small force would be able to challenge the enemy.

 

Outome/Winners

After the battle of the Hampton Roads. both the Confederates and the Unions claimed victory for this war. Union casualties were 261 killed and 108 wounded where confederate casualties were 7 killed and 17 wounded. In the end, the victory went to the Union due to the still standing blockade.

 

What was its impact?

This battle costs the union navy the loss of USS Cumberland and Congress.

Battle of

 

Hampton Roads

Southwestern Tennessee

Who was involved?

Those involved in the battle of Shiloh included General Ulysses S. Grant, General Albert Sidney Johnston, Major General DOn Carlos Buell, General PGT Beauregard, and more.

 

When did the battle occur?

The battle of Shiloh occurred on April 6-7, 1862.

 

Where did the battle take place?

It took place in Suthwestern Tennesse, nearby a church names Shiloh.

 

What happened?

General Grant and his troops camped out nearby a church named Shiloh. The Confederates launched a surprise attack on the Union troops, sending them back to the Tennessee River. The battle lasted two days and by the seconds day, the Union force recovered and gained control of Corinth on May 30.

 

Why did it happen?

Union troops were camped at Pittsburg Landing, 20 miles from Corinth when Confederate forces attacked them, causing the union troops to retaliate.

 

Outome/Winners

There were many casualties, more than 20,000. Confederate general Johnston died during the bloodbath. The victory of the Battle of Shiloh goes to the Union.

 

What was its impact?

The North seemed well on its way to controlling the Mississippi River.

Battle of

 

Shiloh

Prince William County, Virginia

Who was involved?

Those involved in the battle of the Second Bull Run included Stonewall Jackson and his forces, Major General John Pope,Robert E. Lee, and more.

 

When did the battle occur?

The battle occurred August 28-30, 1862.

 

Where did the battle take place?

It took place Prince William County, Virginia. 

What happened?

President Abraham Lincoln ordered to move McClellan's army to Northern Virginia and Join Pope's troops. While this was happeneing, Jackson's troops along with Lee's army moved north to attack Pope's supply base at Manassas. Instead, Pope attacked the approaching intruders, beginning the second battle of Bull Run.

 

Why did it happen?

It happened because the confederates were aiming to attack a supply base owned by the union.

 

Outome/Winners

The battle ended in a confederate victory.

 

What was its impact?

There was no longer a treat on Richmond. Lee and the rest of the Confederates were now only 20 miles away from Washington, D.C.

Battle of

 

Second Bull Run

Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg, Maryland

Who was involved?

Those involved with the Battle of Antietam included McClellan and his troops, other union and confederate armies, Joseph Hooker, and more.

 

When did the battle occur?

The battle occurred on September 17, 1862.

 

Where did the battle take place?

It took place near Sharpsburg, Maryland, along the Antietam Creek.

 

What happened?

The Union and Confederate armies clashed. It was the single bloodiest day of the entire war.

 

Why did it happen?

McClellan waited too long to attack the Confederates. Because of this, Lee was able to gather his forces along the Antietam Creek. 

 

Outome/Winners

Casualties were 6,000 Union and Confederate soldiers dead and 17,000 more soldiers wounded. Although both armies took severe damage, none of them were able to destroy the other. It was a crucial victory for the Union because of the confederate retreat the day after the battle.

 

What was its impact?

Lee withdrew to Virginia and this allowed the union troops to claim victory.

Battle of

 

Antietam

Fredericksburg, Virginia

Who was involved?

Those involved in the battle included General William Franklin, Stonewall Jackson, Edwin Sumner, Joseph Hooker, James Longstreet. Ambrose Burnside, and more.

 

When did the battle occur?

The battle occurred through December 11-17, 1862.

 

Where did the battle take place?

It took place around Fredericksburg, Virginia, between Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of Northern Virgina and the Union army of Potomac.

 

What happened?

The grand division of Major General William B. Franklin pierced the first defensive line of Confederate Stonewall Jackson. Then the grand divisions of Edwin Sumner and Joseph Hooker made frontal assaults against General James Longstreet's position. On December 15, Burnside withdrew his forces.

 

Why did it happen?

Burnside wanted to cross the Rappan hannock River at Fredericksburg and race the Confederate capitol of Richmond before Lee's army could stop them.

 

Outome/Winners

The battle ended in a Confederate victory, with Union casualties more than twice as those suferred by the Confederates. 

 

What was its impact?

 It was another failed Union campaign in the Eastern Theater.

Battle of

 

Fredericksburg

Chancellorsville, Virginia

Who was involved?

Those involved in the battle of Chancelorsville included General Joseph Hooker, Stonewall Jackson, Union and Confederate forces, and more.

 

When did the battle occur?

The battle occurred throughout the period of April 30 to May 6, 1863.

 

Where did the battle take place?

It took place at Chancellorsville, Virginia.

 

What happened?

Before Hooker could make a major attack, Lee and his force struck at Chancellorsville, Virginia, a few miles west of Fredericksburg.

 

Why did it happen?

After the battle of Fredericksburg, Joseph Hooker rebuilt his army early May 1863 and launched a campaign against Lee.

 

Outome/Winners

Lee won another victory by boldly dividing his troops for an assault on the union forces. However, the outcome proved costly because the battle involved heave casualties including the death of Stonewall Jackson.

 

What was its impact?

 The aftermath of the battle left Stonewall Jackson dead.

Battle of

 

Chancellorsville

Vicksburg, Mississippi

Who was involved?

Those involved in assault on Vicskburg included General John. C. Pemberton, Major General Ulysses S. Grant, union and confederate forces, and more.

 

When did the battle occur?

On May 19, 1863, the assault on Vicksburg took place. "After crossing the MIssissippi River south of VIcksburg, and driving northeast, Grant wont battles at Port Gibson and Raymond and captured Jackson, the MIssissippi capitol on May 14, 1863."

 

Where did the battle take place?

It took place in Vicksburg, Mississippi.

 

What happened?

Ulysses S. Grant attacked Vickburg.

 

Why did it happen?

It was a direct assault with intent to take over the city.

 

Outome/Winners

 On July 4, 1863, General John C. Pemberton surrendered the Confederate bastion of Vicksburg, Mississippi to Union forces under Major Ulysses S. Grant.

 

What was its impact?

The seige of Vicksburg was the final major military action in the Vickburg Campaign of the American Civil War.

Assault on

 

 

Vicksburg

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

Who was involved?

Those involved in the battle of Gettysburg included Lee, Hooker, Lincoln, George Meade, George Pickett, and more.

 

When did the battle occur?

 The battle occurred thorughout the time period of July 1 through July 3, 1863.

 

Where did the battle take place?

It took place in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennylvania. 

 

What happened?

Lincoln told general Hooker's force to attack Lee's army, who began moving north in June with an army of 75,000. However, Hooker failed to do this, so Lincoln used Geroge Meade as a replacement for Hooker. The two armies met. On the frist day, the union calvary surprised Rebel infantry. The Northerners fought back but ended up retreating to Cemeterty Ridge. The day after, the Confederates launced another assault but the Union counterattacked, saving their position.

 

Why did it happen?

Another victory - one on Northern soil - might persuade Britain and France to provide aid to the Confederacy. George Meades mission was to find and fightLee's forces as well as protect Washington and Baltimore from Confederate attacks.

 

Outome/Winners

 On the third and last day of the battle, General George Pickett launched an attack. COnfederate soldiers advanced and made easy targets for Union fire as they entered. Lee knew the battle was lost and told his troops it was his fault as their retreated to Virginia.

Battle of

 

Gettysburg

The terms of the surrender were considered "generous."

- The Confederate soldiers had to put away their arms and were allowered to go home

 - They could keep their horses.

 

-- 3 days of food were sent to Lee's troops to prevent starvation.

Surrender at Appomattox & Terms of Surrender

Lee moved his army west of Richmond, with the intention of asking the small Confederate force that was trying to stop Sherman's advance to join them. However, the Union blocked his escape route therefore making Lee realize the situation was hopeless. On April 9, 1865, Lee and the rest of his troops surrendered to Major General Ulysses S. Grant in a small village in Virginia called Appomattox Court House. 

Ulysses S. Grant

Who was he?

Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th president of the United States. He worked closely with Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy, as commanding general of the United States of America.

 

What did he do?

Early in 1862, Grant was ordered to move agaisnt Confederate forces in Kentucky and Tennessee. Along with his toops, he captures Fort Henry on the Tennessee River as well as Fort Donelson on the Cumberland. He was also involced in the Battle of Shiloh where the Union army captures Pittsburg Landing. Grant's victories helped secure the lower Tennessee River which opejed a parth for Union troops to march into Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama.

 

About him

Born : April 27, 1822, Point Pleasant, OH

Died : July 23, 1885, Wilton, NY

Predecessor : Andrew Johnson

Successor : Rutherford B. Hayes

Spouse : Julia Grant (m. 1848-1885)

Robert E. Lee

Who was he?

Robert E. Lee was an American general known for commanding the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War form 1862 until his surrender in 1865.

 

What did he do?

When Virginia declared its secession from the Union in April 1861, Lee chose to follow his home state, despite his personal desire for the country to remain intact and despite an offer of a senior Union command. He ended up being a Confederate general who took commnd of the army opposing McClellan. Once he took command, he won most of his battles with agressive tactics but his questionable strategic foresight into Union territories ended in defeat. His forces were able to drive the Yankees back making the Union troops attempt to capture Richmond fail. He was ordered to launch and offensive into Marlyland so he issues a proclamation urging the people of Maryland to join the Confederacy. 

 

About him

Born : January 19, 1807, Standford Hall, VA

Died : October 12, 1870, Lexington, VA

Spouse : Mary Anna Custis Lee (m. 1831-1870)

Battles and wars : Mexican-American War, John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, American Civil War

Life during Civil War

In both the North and the South, soldiers and civilians suffered many hardships and faced new challenges.

 

Soldiers :

Their life was not easy. They described how their life was filled with "boredom, discomfort, sickness, fear, and horror." In the beginning of the civil war, men quickly volunteered for the armies of their sides. They mostly lived in camps where, on occasion, they'd sing songs, read stories and letters, as well as play baseball games, when on other days, they stuck to their dull life of routinely drills, gross food, and rain.Rebel soldiers suffered from a lack of food and supplies. 

 

Women :

Women in the north and in the south became teachers, office workers, and managed farms. They had to cope with the loss of husbands, fathers, sons, and brothers. They performed many jobs that aided the soldiers in the army such as rolling bandages and making blankets and ammunition. Some collected food, clothes, and medicine to give to them as well. Those who stayed at home were touched by the war in some way. Finally there were those women who served as spies, such as Harriet Tubman who spied for the North.

 

Children :

Children took up jobs that the men who went to war had left vacant or those that their mothers could not manage alone. They'd also help tend to livestock and crops, serve as clerks or helpers for the family businesses, cook meals, and watch their younger siblings, while at teh same, still trying to attend school.

 

African Americans :

African Americans served on both the Union and the Confederate sides. There were over 179,000 in the union army and in the Confederacy, they were still slaves and were mostly for labor positions. Abe Lincoln feared letting them enlist would cause some more states to secede but by 1865, the south allowed it. The first autorized black regiments consisted of recuits from Massachussetts, Tennessee, and South Carolina. They didn't receive equal payment nor treatment. Racial discrimination was widespread. Escaped slaves, many of whom fled to the Union lines, were referred to as contrabands in the early stages of the war since they were seen as technically being property of the Confederate States. Some were recruited as spies. 

Results of War

The Civil War's lasting effects include abolishing the institution of slavery in America, the federal government assuming supreme national authority, both sides sufferring the loss of thousands of men ranging from all ages, a great number of casualties, the booming of the northern economy, the devastation of the southern economy, and firmly redefining the United States as a single, indivisible nation rather than a loosley bound collection of independent states. In conclusion, the overall conflict was the Union wanting to keep the nation united while the Confederacy wanted to go against them and grow as free, unconstrained territories. The whole war was to determine the survival of the United States ofAmerica as it defeated the bid for independence by the breakaway Confederacy States of America. The North's wish came true and the Union was reunited.